trimesh package¶
Subpackages¶
 trimesh.exchange package
 Submodules
 trimesh.exchange.assimp module
 trimesh.exchange.binvox module
 trimesh.exchange.dae module
 trimesh.exchange.export module
 trimesh.exchange.gltf module
 trimesh.exchange.load module
 trimesh.exchange.misc module
 trimesh.exchange.obj module
 trimesh.exchange.openctm module
 trimesh.exchange.ply module
 trimesh.exchange.stl module
 trimesh.exchange.threemf module
 trimesh.exchange.urdf module
 trimesh.exchange.xml_based module
 Module contents
 trimesh.interfaces package
 trimesh.path package
 Subpackages
 Submodules
 trimesh.path.arc module
 trimesh.path.creation module
 trimesh.path.curve module
 trimesh.path.entities module
 trimesh.path.intersections module
 trimesh.path.packing module
 trimesh.path.path module
 trimesh.path.polygons module
 trimesh.path.raster module
 trimesh.path.repair module
 trimesh.path.segments module
 trimesh.path.simplify module
 trimesh.path.traversal module
 trimesh.path.util module
 Module contents
 trimesh.ray package
 trimesh.resources package
 trimesh.scene package
 trimesh.viewer package
 trimesh.visual package
 trimesh.voxel package
Submodules¶
trimesh.base module¶
github.com/mikedh/trimesh¶
Library for importing, exporting and doing simple operations on triangular meshes.

class
trimesh.base.
Trimesh
(vertices=None, faces=None, face_normals=None, vertex_normals=None, face_colors=None, vertex_colors=None, face_attributes=None, vertex_attributes=None, metadata=None, process=True, validate=False, use_embree=True, initial_cache=None, visual=None, **kwargs)¶ Bases:
trimesh.parent.Geometry

apply_obb
()¶ Apply the oriented bounding box transform to the current mesh.
This will result in a mesh with an AABB centered at the origin and the same dimensions as the OBB.
 Returns
matrix – Transformation matrix that was applied to mesh to move it into OBB frame
 Return type
(4, 4) float

apply_transform
(matrix)¶ Transform mesh by a homogeneous transformation matrix.
Does the bookkeeping to avoid recomputing things so this function should be used rather than directly modifying self.vertices if possible.
 Parameters
matrix ((4, 4) float) – Homogeneous transformation matrix

property
area
¶ Summed area of all triangles in the current mesh.
 Returns
area – Surface area of mesh
 Return type
float

property
area_faces
¶ The area of each face in the mesh.
 Returns
area_faces – Area of each face
 Return type
(n,) float

property
body_count
¶ How many connected groups of vertices exist in this mesh.
Note that this number may differ from result in mesh.split, which is calculated from FACE rather than vertex adjacency.
 Returns
count – Number of connected vertex groups
 Return type
int

property
bounds
¶ The axis aligned bounds of the faces of the mesh.
 Returns
bounds – Bounding box with [min, max] coordinates
 Return type
(2, 3) float

property
center_mass
¶ The point in space which is the center of mass/volume.
If the current mesh is not watertight, this is meaningless garbage unless it was explicitly set.
 Returns
center_mass – Volumetric center of mass of the mesh
 Return type
(3,) float

property
centroid
¶ The point in space which is the average of the triangle centroids weighted by the area of each triangle.
This will be valid even for non watertight meshes, unlike self.center_mass
 Returns
centroid – The average vertex weighted by face area
 Return type
(3,) float

compute_stable_poses
(center_mass=None, sigma=0.0, n_samples=1, threshold=0.0)¶ Computes stable orientations of a mesh and their quasistatic probabilites.
This method samples the location of the center of mass from a multivariate gaussian (mean at com, cov equal to identity times sigma) over n_samples. For each sample, it computes the stable resting poses of the mesh on a a planar workspace and evaluates the probabilities of landing in each pose if the object is dropped onto the table randomly.
This method returns the 4x4 homogeneous transform matrices that place the shape against the planar surface with the zaxis pointing upwards and a list of the probabilities for each pose. The transforms and probabilties that are returned are sorted, with the most probable pose first.
 Parameters
center_mass ((3,) float) – The object center of mass (if None, this method assumes uniform density and watertightness and computes a center of mass explicitly)
sigma (float) – The covariance for the multivariate gaussian used to sample center of mass locations
n_samples (int) – The number of samples of the center of mass location
threshold (float) – The probability value at which to threshold returned stable poses
 Returns
transforms ((n, 4, 4) float) – The homogeneous matrices that transform the object to rest in a stable pose, with the new zaxis pointing upwards from the table and the object just touching the table.
probs ((n,) float) – A probability ranging from 0.0 to 1.0 for each pose

contains
(points)¶ Given a set of points, determine whether or not they are inside the mesh. This raises an error if called on a non watertight mesh.
 Parameters
points ((n, 3) float) – Points in cartesian space
 Returns
contains – Whether or not each point is inside the mesh
 Return type
(n, ) bool

convert_units
(desired, guess=False)¶ Convert the units of the mesh into a specified unit.
 Parameters
desired (string) – Units to convert to (eg ‘inches’)
guess (boolean) – If self.units are not defined should we guess the current units of the document and then convert?

convex_decomposition
(maxhulls=20, **kwargs)¶ Compute an approximate convex decomposition of a mesh.
testVHACD Parameters which can be passed as kwargs:
resolution 100000 max. concavity 0.001 plane downsampling 4 convexhull downsampling 4 alpha 0.05 beta 0.05 maxhulls 10 pca 0 mode 0 max. vertices per convexhull 64 min. volume to add vertices to convexhulls 0.0001 convexhull approximation 1 OpenCL acceleration 1 OpenCL platform ID 0 OpenCL device ID 0 output output.wrl log log.txt
 Parameters
maxhulls (int) – Maximum number of convex hulls to return
**kwargs (testVHACD keyword arguments) –
 Returns
meshes – List of convex meshes that approximate the original
 Return type
list of trimesh.Trimesh

property
convex_hull
¶ Get a new Trimesh object representing the convex hull of the current mesh.
 Returns
convex – Mesh of convex hull of current mesh
 Return type

copy
()¶ Safely get a copy of the current mesh.
Copied objects will have emptied caches to avoid memory issues and so may be slow on initial operations until caches are regenerated.
Current object will not have its cache cleared.
 Returns
copied – Copy of current mesh
 Return type

crc
()¶ A zlib.adler32 checksum for the current mesh data.
This is about 5x faster than an MD5, and the checksum is checked every time something is requested from the cache so it gets called a lot.
 Returns
crc – Checksum of current mesh data
 Return type
int

property
density
¶ The density of the mesh.
 Returns
density – The density of the mesh.
 Return type
float

difference
(other, engine=None)¶ Boolean difference between this mesh and n other meshes
 Parameters
other (trimesh.Trimesh, or list of trimesh.Trimesh objects) – Meshes to difference
 Returns
difference – Difference between self and other Trimesh objects
 Return type

property
edges
¶ Edges of the mesh (derived from faces).
 Returns
edges – List of vertex indices making up edges
 Return type
(n, 2) int

property
edges_face
¶ Which face does each edge belong to.
 Returns
edges_face – Index of self.faces
 Return type
(n,) int

property
edges_sorted
¶ Edges sorted along axis 1
 Returns
edges_sorted – Same as self.edges but sorted along axis 1
 Return type
(n, 2)

property
edges_sparse
¶ Edges in sparse bool COO graph format where connected vertices are True.
 Returns
sparse – Sparse graph in COO format
 Return type
(len(self.vertices), len(self.vertices)) bool

property
edges_unique
¶ The unique edges of the mesh.
 Returns
edges_unique – Vertex indices for unique edges
 Return type
(n, 2) int

property
edges_unique_inverse
¶ Return the inverse required to reproduce self.edges_sorted from self.edges_unique.
Useful for referencing edge properties: mesh.edges_unique[mesh.edges_unique_inverse] == m.edges_sorted
 Returns
inverse – Indexes of self.edges_unique
 Return type
(len(self.edges),) int

property
edges_unique_length
¶ How long is each unique edge.
 Returns
length – Length of each unique edge
 Return type
(len(self.edges_unique), ) float

property
euler_number
¶ Return the Euler characteristic (a topological invariant) for the mesh In order to guarantee correctness, this should be called after remove_unreferenced_vertices
 Returns
euler_number – Topological invariant
 Return type
int

eval_cached
(statement, *args)¶ Evaluate a statement and cache the result before returning.
Statements are evaluated inside the Trimesh object, and
 Parameters
statement (str) – Statement of valid python code
*args (list) – Available inside statement as args[0], etc
 Returns
result
 Return type
result of running eval on statement with args
Examples
r = mesh.eval_cached(‘np.dot(self.vertices, args[0])’, [0,0,1])

export
(file_obj=None, file_type=None, **kwargs)¶ Export the current mesh to a file object. If file_obj is a filename, file will be written there.
Supported formats are stl, off, ply, collada, json, dict, glb, dict64, msgpack.
 Parameters
file_obj (open writeable file object) – str, file name where to save the mesh None, if you would like this function to return the export blob
file_type (str) – Which file type to export as. If file name is passed this is not required

property
extents
¶ The length, width, and height of the bounding box of the mesh.
 Returns
extents – Array containing axis aligned [length, width, height]
 Return type
(3,) float

property
face_adjacency
¶ Find faces that share an edge, which we call here ‘adjacent’.
 Returns
adjacency – Pairs of faces which share an edge
 Return type
(n,2) int
Examples
In [1]: mesh = trimesh.load(‘models/featuretype.STL’)
In [2]: mesh.face_adjacency Out[2]: array([[ 0, 1],
[ 2, 3], [ 0, 3], …, [1112, 949], [3467, 3475], [1113, 3475]])
In [3]: mesh.faces[mesh.face_adjacency[0]] Out[3]: TrackedArray([[ 1, 0, 408],
[1239, 0, 1]], dtype=int64)
In [4]: import networkx as nx
In [5]: graph = nx.from_edgelist(mesh.face_adjacency)
In [6]: groups = nx.connected_components(graph)

property
face_adjacency_angles
¶ Return the angle between adjacent faces
 Returns
adjacency_angle – Angle between adjacent faces Each value corresponds with self.face_adjacency
 Return type
(n,) float

property
face_adjacency_convex
¶ Return faces which are adjacent and locally convex.
What this means is that given faces A and B, the one vertex in B that is not shared with A, projected onto the plane of A has a projection that is zero or negative.
 Returns
are_convex – Face pairs that are locally convex
 Return type
(len(self.face_adjacency),) bool

property
face_adjacency_edges
¶ Returns the edges that are shared by the adjacent faces.
 Returns
edges – Vertex indices which correspond to face_adjacency
 Return type
(n, 2) int

property
face_adjacency_projections
¶ The projection of the non shared vertex of a triangle onto its adjacent face
 Returns
projections – Dot product of vertex onto plane of adjacent triangle.
 Return type
(len(self.face_adjacency),) float

property
face_adjacency_radius
¶ The approximate radius of a cylinder that fits inside adjacent faces.
 Returns
radii – Approximate radius formed by triangle pair
 Return type
(len(self.face_adjacency),) float

property
face_adjacency_span
¶ The approximate perpendicular projection of the non shared vertices in a pair of adjacent faces onto the shared edge of the two faces.
 Returns
span – Approximate span between the non shared vertices
 Return type
(len(self.face_adjacency),) float

property
face_adjacency_tree
¶ An Rtree of face adjacencies.
 Returns
tree – Where each edge in self.face_adjacency has a rectangular cell
 Return type
rtree.index
Return the vertex index of the two vertices not in the shared edge between two adjacent faces
 Returns
vid_unshared – Indexes of mesh.vertices
 Return type
(len(mesh.face_adjacency), 2) int

property
face_angles
¶ Returns the angle at each vertex of a face.
 Returns
angles – Angle at each vertex of a face
 Return type
(n, 3) float

property
face_angles_sparse
¶ A sparse matrix representation of the face angles.
 Returns
sparse – dtype: float shape: (len(self.vertices), len(self.faces))
 Return type
scipy.sparse.coo_matrix with:

property
face_normals
¶ Return the unit normal vector for each face.
If a face is degenerate and a normal can’t be generated a zero magnitude unit vector will be returned for that face.
 Returns
normals – Normal vectors of each face
 Return type
(len(self.faces), 3) np.float64

property
faces
¶ The faces of the mesh.
This is regarded as core information which cannot be regenerated from cache, and as such is stored in self._data which tracks the array for changes and clears cached values of the mesh if this is altered.
 Returns
faces – Representing triangles which reference self.vertices
 Return type
(n,3) int

property
faces_sparse
¶ A sparse matrix representation of the faces.
 Returns
sparse – Has properties: dtype : bool shape : (len(self.vertices), len(self.faces))
 Return type
scipy.sparse.coo_matrix

property
faces_unique_edges
¶ For each face return which indexes in mesh.unique_edges constructs that face.
 Returns
faces_unique_edges – Indexes of self.edges_unique that construct self.faces
 Return type
(len(self.faces), 3) int
Examples
In [0]: mesh.faces[0:2] Out[0]: TrackedArray([[ 1, 6946, 24224],
[ 6946, 1727, 24225]])
In [1]: mesh.edges_unique[mesh.faces_unique_edges[0:2]] Out[1]: array([[[ 1, 6946],
[ 6946, 24224], [ 1, 24224]],
 [[ 1727, 6946],
[ 1727, 24225], [ 6946, 24225]]])

property
facets
¶ Return a list of face indices for coplanar adjacent faces.
 Returns
facets – Groups of indexes of self.faces
 Return type
(n, ) sequence of (m,) int

property
facets_area
¶ Return an array containing the area of each facet.
 Returns
area – Total area of each facet (group of faces)
 Return type
(len(self.facets),) float

property
facets_boundary
¶ Return the edges which represent the boundary of each facet
 Returns
edges_boundary – Indices of self.vertices
 Return type
sequence of (n, 2) int

property
facets_normal
¶ Return the normal of each facet
 Returns
normals – A unit normal vector for each facet
 Return type
(len(self.facets), 3) float

property
facets_on_hull
¶ Find which facets of the mesh are on the convex hull.
 Returns
on_hull – is A facet on the meshes convex hull or not
 Return type
(len(mesh.facets),) bool

property
facets_origin
¶ Return a point on the facet plane.
 Returns
origins – A point on each facet plane
 Return type
(len(self.facets), 3) float

fill_holes
()¶ Fill single triangle and single quad holes in the current mesh.
 Returns
watertight – Is the mesh watertight after the function completes
 Return type
bool

fix_normals
(**kwargs)¶ Find and fix problems with self.face_normals and self.faces winding direction.
For face normals ensure that vectors are consistently pointed outwards, and that self.faces is wound in the correct direction for all connected components.
 Parameters
multibody (None or bool) – Fix normals across multiple bodies if None automatically pick from body_count

property
identifier
¶ Return a float vector which is unique to the mesh and is robust to rotation and translation.
 Returns
identifier – Identifying properties of the current mesh
 Return type
(6,) float

property
identifier_md5
¶ An MD5 of the rotation invariant identifier vector
 Returns
hashed – MD5 hash of the identifier vector
 Return type
str

intersection
(other, engine=None)¶ Boolean intersection between this mesh and n other meshes
 Parameters
other (trimesh.Trimesh, or list of trimesh.Trimesh objects) – Meshes to calculate intersections with
 Returns
intersection – Mesh of the volume contained by all passed meshes
 Return type

invert
()¶ Invert the mesh in place by reversing the winding of every face and negating normals without dumping the cache.
self.faces : columns reversed self.face_normals : negated if defined self.vertex_normals : negated if defined

property
is_convex
¶ Check if a mesh is convex or not.
 Returns
is_convex – Is mesh convex or not
 Return type
bool

property
is_empty
¶ Does the current mesh have data defined.
 Returns
empty – If True, no data is set on the current mesh
 Return type
bool

property
is_volume
¶ Check if a mesh has all the properties required to represent a valid volume, rather than just a surface.
These properties include being watertight, having consistent winding and outward facing normals.
 Returns
valid – Does the mesh represent a volume
 Return type
bool

property
is_watertight
¶ Check if a mesh is watertight by making sure every edge is included in two faces.
 Returns
is_watertight – Is mesh watertight or not
 Return type
bool

property
is_winding_consistent
¶ Does the mesh have consistent winding or not. A mesh with consistent winding has each shared edge going in an opposite direction from the other in the pair.
 Returns
consistent – Is winding is consistent or not
 Return type
bool

property
kdtree
¶ Return a scipy.spatial.cKDTree of the vertices of the mesh. Not cached as this lead to observed memory issues and segfaults.
 Returns
tree – Contains mesh.vertices
 Return type
scipy.spatial.cKDTree

property
mass
¶ Mass of the current mesh, based on specified density and volume. If the current mesh isn’t watertight this is garbage.
 Returns
mass – Mass of the current mesh
 Return type
float

property
mass_properties
¶ Returns the mass properties of the current mesh.
Assumes uniform density, and result is probably garbage if mesh isn’t watertight.
 Returns
properties – With keys: ‘volume’ : in global units^3 ‘mass’ : From specified density ‘density’ : Included again for convenience (same as kwarg density) ‘inertia’ : Taken at the center of mass and aligned with global
coordinate system
’center_mass’ : Center of mass location, in global coordinate system
 Return type
dict

md5
()¶ An MD5 of the core geometry information for the mesh, faces and vertices.
Generated from TrackedArray which subclasses np.ndarray to monitor array for changes and returns a correct lazily evaluated md5 so it only has to recalculate the hash occasionally, rather than on every call.
 Returns
md5 – MD5 of everything in the DataStore
 Return type
string

merge_vertices
(digits=None, textured=True)¶ If a mesh has vertices that are closer than trimesh.constants.tol.merge reindex faces to reference the same index for both vertices.
 Parameters
digits (int) – If specified overrides tol.merge
textured (bool) – If True avoids merging vertices with different UV coordinates. No effect on untextured meshes.

property
moment_inertia
¶ Return the moment of inertia matrix of the current mesh. If mesh isn’t watertight this is garbage.
 Returns
inertia – Moment of inertia of the current mesh
 Return type
(3, 3) float

outline
(face_ids=None, **kwargs)¶ Given a list of face indexes find the outline of those faces and return it as a Path3D.
The outline is defined here as every edge which is only included by a single triangle.
Note that this implies a nonwatertight mesh as the outline of a watertight mesh is an empty path.
 Parameters
face_ids ((n,) int) – Indices to compute the outline of. If None, outline of full mesh will be computed.
**kwargs (passed to Path3D constructor) –
 Returns
path – Curve in 3D of the outline
 Return type

property
principal_inertia_components
¶ Return the principal components of inertia
Ordering corresponds to mesh.principal_inertia_vectors
 Returns
components – Principal components of inertia
 Return type
(3,) float

property
principal_inertia_transform
¶ A transform which moves the current mesh so the principal inertia vectors are on the X,Y, and Z axis, and the centroid is at the origin.
 Returns
transform – Homogeneous transformation matrix
 Return type
(4, 4) float

property
principal_inertia_vectors
¶ Return the principal axis of inertia.
Ordering corresponds to mesh.principal_inertia_components
 Returns
vectors – Three vectors pointing along the principal axis of inertia directions
 Return type
(3, 3) float

process
()¶ Do the bare minimum processing to make a mesh useful.
 Does this by:
removing NaN and Inf values
merging duplicate vertices
 If self._validate:
Remove triangles which have one edge of their rectangular 2D oriented bounding box shorter than tol.merge
remove duplicated triangles
 Returns
self – Current mesh
 Return type

property
referenced_vertices
¶ Which vertices in the current mesh are referenced by a face.
 Returns
referenced – Which vertices are referenced by a face
 Return type
(len(self.vertices),) bool

register
(other, **kwargs)¶ Align a mesh with another mesh or a PointCloud using the principal axes of inertia as a starting point which is refined by iterative closest point.
 Parameters
mesh (trimesh.Trimesh object) – Mesh to align with other
other (trimesh.Trimesh or (n, 3) float) – Mesh or points in space
samples (int) – Number of samples from mesh surface to align
icp_first (int) – How many ICP iterations for the 9 possible combinations of
icp_final (int) – How many ICP itertations for the closest candidate from the wider search
 Returns
mesh_to_other ((4, 4) float) – Transform to align mesh to the other object
cost (float) – Average square distance per point

remove_degenerate_faces
(height=1e08)¶ Remove degenerate faces (faces without 3 unique vertex indices) from the current mesh.
If a height is specified, it will remove any face with a 2D oriented bounding box with one edge shorter than that height.
If not specified, it will remove any face with a zero normal.
 Parameters
height (float) – If specified removes faces with an oriented bounding box shorter than this on one side.
 Returns
nondegenerate – Mask used to remove faces
 Return type
(len(self.faces),) bool

remove_duplicate_faces
()¶ On the current mesh remove any faces which are duplicates.
self.faces : removes duplicates

remove_infinite_values
()¶ Ensure that every vertex and face consists of finite numbers.
This will remove vertices or faces containing np.nan and np.inf
self.faces : masked to remove np.inf/np.nan self.vertices : masked to remove np.inf/np.nan

remove_unreferenced_vertices
()¶ Remove all vertices in the current mesh which are not referenced by a face.

rezero
()¶ Translate the mesh so that all vertex vertices are positive.
self.vertices : Translated to first octant (all values > 0)

sample
(count, return_index=False)¶ Return random samples distributed normally across the surface of the mesh
 Parameters
count (int) – Number of points to sample
return_index (bool) – If True will also return the index of which face each sample was taken from.
 Returns
samples ((count, 3) float) – Points on surface of mesh
face_index ((count, ) int) – Index of self.faces

property
scale
¶ A metric for the overall scale of the mesh, the length of the diagonal of the axis aligned bounding box of the mesh.
 Returns
scale – The length of the meshes AABB diagonal
 Return type
float

scene
(**kwargs)¶ Get a Scene object containing the current mesh.
 Returns
scene – Contains just the current mesh
 Return type

section
(plane_normal, plane_origin)¶ Returns a 3D cross section of the current mesh and a plane defined by origin and normal.
 Parameters
plane_normal – Normal vector of section plane
plane_origin ((3,) float) – Point on the cross section plane
 Returns
intersections – Curve of intersection
 Return type
Path3D or None

section_multiplane
(plane_origin, plane_normal, heights)¶ Return multiple parallel cross sections of the current mesh in 2D.
 Parameters
plane_normal – Normal vector of section plane
plane_origin ((3,) float) – Point on the cross section plane
heights ((n,) float) – Each section is offset by height along the plane normal.
 Returns
paths – 2D cross sections at specified heights. path.metadata[‘to_3D’] contains transform to return 2D section back into 3D space.
 Return type
(n,) Path2D or None

show
(**kwargs)¶ Render the mesh in an opengl window. Requires pyglet.
 Parameters
smooth (bool) – Run smooth shading on mesh or not, large meshes will be slow
 Returns
scene – Scene with current mesh in it
 Return type
trimesh.scene.Scene

slice_plane
(plane_origin, plane_normal, **kwargs)¶ Returns another mesh that is the current mesh sliced by the plane defined by origin and normal.
 Parameters
plane_normal – Normal vector of slicing plane
plane_origin ((3,) float) – Point on the slicing plane
 Returns
new_mesh – Subset of current mesh sliced by plane
 Return type
trimesh.Trimesh or None

smoothed
(**kwargs)¶ Return a version of the current mesh which will render nicely, without changing source mesh.
 Parameters
angle (float) – Angle in radians, face pairs with angles smaller than this value will appear smoothed
 Returns
smoothed – Non watertight version of current mesh which will render nicely with smooth shading
 Return type

split
(**kwargs)¶ Returns a list of Trimesh objects, based on face connectivity. Splits into individual components, sometimes referred to as ‘bodies’
 Parameters
only_watertight (bool) – Only return watertight meshes and discard remainder
adjacency (None or (n, 2) int) – Override face adjacency with custom values
 Returns
meshes – Separate bodies from original mesh
 Return type
(n,) trimesh.Trimesh

subdivide
(face_index=None)¶ Subdivide a mesh, with each subdivided face replaced with four smaller faces.
 Parameters
face_index ((m,) int or None) – If None all faces of mesh will be subdivided If (m,) int array of indices: only specified faces will be subdivided. Note that in this case the mesh will generally no longer be manifold, as the additional vertex on the midpoint will not be used by the adjacent faces to the faces specified, and an additional postprocessing step will be required to make resulting mesh watertight

submesh
(faces_sequence, **kwargs)¶ Return a subset of the mesh.
 Parameters
faces_sequence (sequence (m,) int) – Face indices of mesh
only_watertight (bool) – Only return submeshes which are watertight
append (bool) – Return a single mesh which has the faces appended. if this flag is set, only_watertight is ignored
 Returns
if append (trimesh.Trimesh object)
else (list of trimesh.Trimesh objects)

property
symmetry
¶ Check whether a mesh has rotational symmetry.
 Returns
symmetry – ‘radial’ Symmetric around an axis ‘spherical’ Symmetric around a point
 Return type
None No rotational symmetry

property
symmetry_axis
¶ If a mesh has rotational symmetry, return the axis.
 Returns
axis – Axis around which a 2D profile was revolved to generate this mesh
 Return type
(3,) float

property
symmetry_section
¶ If a mesh has rotational symmetry, return the two vectors which make up a section coordinate frame.
 Returns
section
 Return type
(2, 3) float, vectors to take a section along

to_dict
()¶ Return a dictionary representation of the current mesh, with keys that can be used as the kwargs for the Trimesh constructor, eg:
a = Trimesh(**other_mesh.to_dict())
 Returns
result – With keys that match trimesh constructor
 Return type
dict

property
triangles
¶ Actual triangles of the mesh (points, not indexes)
 Returns
triangles – Points of triangle vertices
 Return type
(n, 3, 3) float

property
triangles_center
¶ The center of each triangle (barycentric [1/3, 1/3, 1/3])
 Returns
triangles_center – Center of each triangular face
 Return type
(len(self.faces), 3) float

property
triangles_cross
¶ The cross product of two edges of each triangle.
 Returns
crosses – Cross product of each triangle
 Return type
(n, 3) float

property
triangles_tree
¶ An Rtree containing each face of the mesh.
 Returns
tree – Each triangle in self.faces has a rectangular cell
 Return type
rtree.index

union
(other, engine=None)¶ Boolean union between this mesh and n other meshes
 Parameters
other (trimesh.Trimesh, or list of trimesh.Trimesh objects) – Other meshes to union
 Returns
union – Union of self and other Trimesh objects
 Return type

property
units
¶ Definition of units for the mesh.
 Returns
units – Unit system mesh is in, or None if not defined
 Return type
str

unmerge_vertices
()¶ Removes all face references so that every face contains three unique vertex indices and no faces are adjacent.

update_faces
(mask)¶ In many cases, we will want to remove specific faces. However, there is additional bookkeeping to do this cleanly. This function updates the set of faces with a validity mask, as well as keeping track of normals and colors.
 Parameters
valid – Mask to remove faces

update_vertices
(mask, inverse=None)¶ Update vertices with a mask.
 Parameters
vertex_mask ((len(self.vertices)) bool) – Array of which vertices to keep
inverse ((len(self.vertices)) int) – Array to reconstruct vertex references such as output by np.unique

property
vertex_adjacency_graph
¶ Returns a networkx graph representing the vertices and their connections in the mesh.
 Returns
graph – Graph representing vertices and edges between them where vertices are nodes and edges are edges
 Return type
networkx.Graph
Examples
This is useful for getting nearby vertices for a given vertex, potentially for some simple smoothing techniques.
mesh = trimesh.primitives.Box() graph = mesh.vertex_adjacency_graph graph.neighbors(0) > [1,2,3,4]

property
vertex_defects
¶ Return the vertex defects, or (2*pi) minus the sum of the angles of every face that includes that vertex.
If a vertex is only included by coplanar triangles, this will be zero. For convex regions this is positive, and concave negative.
 Returns
vertex_defect – Vertex defect at the every vertex
 Return type
(len(self.vertices), ) float

property
vertex_faces
¶ A representation of the face indices that correspond to each vertex.
 Returns
vertex_faces – Each row contains the face indices that correspond to the given vertex, padded with 1 up to the max number of faces corresponding to any one vertex Where n == len(self.vertices), m == max number of faces for a single vertex
 Return type
(n,m) int

property
vertex_neighbors
¶ The vertex neighbors of each vertex of the mesh, determined from the cached vertex_adjacency_graph, if already existent.
 Returns
vertex_neighbors – Represents immediate neighbors of each vertex along the edge of a triangle
 Return type
(len(self.vertices),) int
Examples
This is useful for getting nearby vertices for a given vertex, potentially for some simple smoothing techniques.
>>> mesh = trimesh.primitives.Box() >>> mesh.vertex_neighbors[0] [1,2,3,4]

property
vertex_normals
¶ The vertex normals of the mesh. If the normals were loaded we check to make sure we have the same number of vertex normals and vertices before returning them. If there are no vertex normals defined or a shape mismatch we calculate the vertex normals from the mean normals of the faces the vertex is used in.
 Returns
vertex_normals – Represents the surface normal at each vertex. Where n == len(self.vertices)
 Return type
(n,3) float

property
vertices
¶ The vertices of the mesh.
This is regarded as core information which cannot be generated from cache and as such is stored in self._data which tracks the array for changes and clears cached values of the mesh if this is altered.
 Returns
vertices – Points in cartesian space referenced by self.faces
 Return type
(n, 3) float

property
visual
¶ Get the stored visuals for the current mesh.
 Returns
visual – Contains visual information about the mesh
 Return type

property
volume
¶ Volume of the current mesh calculated using a surface integral. If the current mesh isn’t watertight this is garbage.
 Returns
volume – Volume of the current mesh
 Return type
float

voxelized
(pitch, method='subdivide', **kwargs)¶ Return a VoxelGrid object representing the current mesh discretized into voxels at the specified pitch
 Parameters
pitch (float) – The edge length of a single voxel
method (implementation key. See trimesh.voxel.creation.voxelizers) –
**kwargs (additional kwargs passed to the specified implementation.) –
 Returns
voxelized – Representing the current mesh
 Return type
VoxelGrid object

trimesh.boolean module¶
boolean.py¶
Do boolean operations on meshes using either Blender or OpenSCAD.

trimesh.boolean.
boolean_automatic
(meshes, operation)¶ Automatically pick an engine for booleans based on availability.
 Parameters
meshes (list of Trimesh) – Meshes to be booleaned
operation (str) – Type of boolean, i.e. ‘union’, ‘intersection’, ‘difference’
 Returns
result – Result of boolean operation
 Return type

trimesh.boolean.
difference
(meshes, engine=None)¶ Compute the boolean difference between a mesh an n other meshes.
 Parameters
meshes (list of trimesh.Trimesh) – Meshes to be processed
engine (str) – Which backend to use, i.e. ‘blender’ or ‘scad’
 Returns
difference
 Return type
a  (other meshes), **kwargs for a Trimesh

trimesh.boolean.
intersection
(meshes, engine=None)¶ Compute the boolean intersection between a mesh an n other meshes.
 Parameters
meshes (list of trimesh.Trimesh) – Meshes to be processed
engine (str) – Which backend to use, i.e. ‘blender’ or ‘scad’
 Returns
intersection – volume that is contained by all meshes
 Return type
**kwargs for a Trimesh object of the

trimesh.boolean.
union
(meshes, engine=None)¶ Compute the boolean union between a mesh an n other meshes.
 Parameters
meshes (list of trimesh.Trimesh) – Meshes to be processed
engine (str) – Which backend to use, i.e. ‘blender’ or ‘scad’
 Returns
union
 Return type
a + (other meshes), **kwargs for a Trimesh
trimesh.bounds module¶

trimesh.bounds.
contains
(bounds, points)¶ Do an axis aligned bounding box check on a list of points.
 Parameters
bounds ((2, dimension) float) – Axis aligned bounding box
points ((n, dimension) float) – Points in space
 Returns
points_inside – True if points are inside the AABB
 Return type
(n,) bool

trimesh.bounds.
corners
(bounds)¶ Given a pair of axis aligned bounds, return all 8 corners of the bounding box.
 Parameters
bounds ((2,3) or (2,2) float) – Axis aligned bounds
 Returns
corners – Corner vertices of the cube
 Return type
(8,3) float

trimesh.bounds.
minimum_cylinder
(obj, sample_count=6, angle_tol=0.001)¶ Find the approximate minimum volume cylinder which contains a mesh or a a list of points.
Samples a hemisphere then uses scipy.optimize to pick the final orientation of the cylinder.
A nice discussion about better ways to implement this is here: https://www.staff.unimainz.de/schoemer/publications/ALGO00.pdf
 Parameters
obj (trimesh.Trimesh, or (n, 3) float) – Mesh object or points in space
sample_count (int) – How densely should we sample the hemisphere. Angular spacing is 180 degrees / this number
 Returns
result –
 With keys:
’radius’ : float, radius of cylinder ‘height’ : float, height of cylinder ‘transform’ : (4,4) float, transform from the origin
to centered cylinder
 Return type
dict

trimesh.bounds.
oriented_bounds
(obj, angle_digits=1, ordered=True)¶ Find the oriented bounding box for a Trimesh
 Parameters
obj (trimesh.Trimesh, (n, 2) float, or (n, 3) float) – Mesh object or points in 2D or 3D space
angle_digits (int) – How much angular precision do we want on our result. Even with less precision the returned extents will cover the mesh albeit with larger than minimal volume, and may experience substantial speedups.
 Returns
to_origin ((4,4) float) – Transformation matrix which will move the center of the bounding box of the input mesh to the origin.
extents ((3,) float) – The extents of the mesh once transformed with to_origin

trimesh.bounds.
oriented_bounds_2D
(points, qhull_options='QbB')¶ Find an oriented bounding box for an array of 2D points.
 Parameters
points ((n,2) float) – Points in 2D.
 Returns
transform ((3,3) float) – Homogeneous 2D transformation matrix to move the input points so that the axis aligned bounding box is CENTERED AT THE ORIGIN.
rectangle ((2,) float) – Size of extents once input points are transformed by transform
trimesh.caching module¶
caching.py¶
Functions and classes that help with tracking changes in ndarrays and clearing cached values based on those changes.

class
trimesh.caching.
Cache
(id_function)¶ Bases:
object
Class to cache values which will be stored until the result of an ID function changes.

clear
(exclude=None)¶ Remove all elements in the cache.

delete
(key)¶ Remove a key from the cache.

id_set
()¶ Set the current ID to the value of the ID function.

update
(items)¶ Update the cache with a set of key, value pairs without checking id_function.

verify
()¶ Verify that the cached values are still for the same value of id_function and delete all stored items if the value of id_function has changed.


class
trimesh.caching.
DataStore
¶ Bases:
collections.abc.Mapping
A class to store multiple numpy arrays and track them all for changes.
Operates like a dict that only stores numpy.ndarray

clear
()¶ Remove all data from the DataStore.

crc
()¶ Get a CRC reflecting everything in the DataStore.
 Returns
crc – CRC of data
 Return type
int

fast_hash
()¶ Get a CRC32 or xxhash.xxh64 reflecting the DataStore.
 Returns
hashed – Checksum of data
 Return type
int

is_empty
()¶ Is the current DataStore empty or not.
 Returns
empty – False if there are items in the DataStore
 Return type
bool

md5
()¶ Get an MD5 reflecting everything in the DataStore.
 Returns
md5 – MD5 of data in hexadecimal
 Return type
str

property
mutable
¶ Is data allowed to be altered or not.
 Returns
is_mutable – Can data be altered in the DataStore
 Return type
bool

update
(values)¶


class
trimesh.caching.
TrackedArray
¶ Bases:
numpy.ndarray
Subclass of numpy.ndarray that provides hash methods to track changes.
General method is to aggressively set ‘modified’ flags on operations which might (but don’t necessarily) alter the array, ideally we sometimes compute hashes when we don’t need to, but we don’t return wrong hashes ever.
We store boolean modified flag for each hash type to make checks fast even for queries of different hashes.

md5 : str, hexadecimal MD5 of array

crc : int, zlib crc32/adler32 checksum

fast_hash : int, CRC or xxhash.xx64

crc
()¶ A zlib.crc32 or zlib.adler32 checksum of the current data.
 Returns
crc
 Return type
int, checksum from zlib.crc32 or zlib.adler32

fast_hash
()¶ An xxhash.b64 hash of the array.
 Returns
xx
 Return type
int, xxhash.xxh64 hash of array.

md5
()¶ Return an MD5 hash of the current array.
 Returns
md5
 Return type
str, hexadecimal MD5 of the array

property
mutable
¶


trimesh.caching.
cache_decorator
(function)¶ A decorator for class methods, replaces @property but will store and retrieve function return values in object cache.

trimesh.caching.
tracked_array
(array, dtype=None)¶ Properly subclass a numpy ndarray to track changes.
Avoids some pitfalls of subclassing by forcing contiguous arrays, and does a view into a TrackedArray.
 Parameters
array (array like object) – To be turned into a TrackedArray
dtype (np.dtype) – Which dtype to use for the array
 Returns
tracked – Contains input array data
 Return type
trimesh.collision module¶

class
trimesh.collision.
CollisionManager
¶ Bases:
object
A meshmesh collision manager.

add_object
(name, mesh, transform=None)¶ Add an object to the collision manager.
If an object with the given name is already in the manager, replace it.
 Parameters
name (str) – An identifier for the object
mesh (Trimesh object) – The geometry of the collision object
transform ((4,4) float) – Homogeneous transform matrix for the object

in_collision_internal
(return_names=False, return_data=False)¶ Check if any pair of objects in the manager collide with one another.
 Parameters
return_names (bool) – If true, a set is returned containing the names of all pairs of objects in collision.
return_data (bool) – If true, a list of ContactData is returned as well
 Returns
is_collision (bool) – True if a collision occurred between any pair of objects and False otherwise
names (set of 2tup) – The set of pairwise collisions. Each tuple contains two names in alphabetical order indicating that the two corresponding objects are in collision.
contacts (list of ContactData) – All contacts detected

in_collision_other
(other_manager, return_names=False, return_data=False)¶ Check if any object from this manager collides with any object from another manager.
 Parameters
other_manager (CollisionManager) – Another collision manager object
return_names (bool) – If true, a set is returned containing the names of all pairs of objects in collision.
return_data (bool) – If true, a list of ContactData is returned as well
 Returns
is_collision (bool) – True if a collision occurred between any pair of objects and False otherwise
names (set of 2tup) – The set of pairwise collisions. Each tuple contains two names (first from this manager, second from the other_manager) indicating that the two corresponding objects are in collision.
contacts (list of ContactData) – All contacts detected

in_collision_single
(mesh, transform=None, return_names=False, return_data=False)¶ Check a single object for collisions against all objects in the manager.
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh object) – The geometry of the collision object
transform ((4,4) float) – Homogeneous transform matrix
return_names (bool) – If true, a set is returned containing the names of all objects in collision with the object
return_data (bool) – If true, a list of ContactData is returned as well
 Returns
is_collision (bool) – True if a collision occurs and False otherwise
names (set of str) – The set of names of objects that collided with the provided one
contacts (list of ContactData) – All contacts detected

min_distance_internal
(return_names=False, return_data=False)¶ Get the minimum distance between any pair of objects in the manager.
 Parameters
return_names (bool) – If true, a 2tuple is returned containing the names of the closest objects.
return_data (bool) – If true, a DistanceData object is returned as well
 Returns
distance (float) – Min distance between any two managed objects
names ((2,) str) – The names of the closest objects
data (DistanceData) – Extra data about the distance query

min_distance_other
(other_manager, return_names=False, return_data=False)¶ Get the minimum distance between any pair of objects, one in each manager.
 Parameters
other_manager (CollisionManager) – Another collision manager object
return_names (bool) – If true, a 2tuple is returned containing the names of the closest objects.
return_data (bool) – If true, a DistanceData object is returned as well
 Returns
distance (float) – The min distance between a pair of objects, one from each manager.
names (2tup of str) – A 2tuple containing two names (first from this manager, second from the other_manager) indicating the two closest objects.
data (DistanceData) – Extra data about the distance query

min_distance_single
(mesh, transform=None, return_name=False, return_data=False)¶ Get the minimum distance between a single object and any object in the manager.
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh object) – The geometry of the collision object
transform ((4,4) float) – Homogeneous transform matrix for the object
return_names (bool) – If true, return name of the closest object
return_data (bool) – If true, a DistanceData object is returned as well
 Returns
distance (float) – Min distance between mesh and any object in the manager
name (str) – The name of the object in the manager that was closest
data (DistanceData) – Extra data about the distance query

remove_object
(name)¶ Delete an object from the collision manager.
 Parameters
name (str) – The identifier for the object

set_transform
(name, transform)¶ Set the transform for one of the manager’s objects. This replaces the prior transform.
 Parameters
name (str) – An identifier for the object already in the manager
transform ((4,4) float) – A new homogeneous transform matrix for the object


class
trimesh.collision.
ContactData
(names, contact)¶ Bases:
object
Data structure for holding information about a collision contact.

index
(name)¶ Returns the index of the face in contact for the mesh with the given name.
 Parameters
name (str) – The name of the target object.
 Returns
index – The index of the face in collison
 Return type
int

property
point
¶ The 3D point of intersection for this contact.
 Returns
point – The intersection point.
 Return type
(3,) float


class
trimesh.collision.
DistanceData
(names, result)¶ Bases:
object
Data structure for holding information about a distance query.

property
distance
¶ Returns the distance between the two objects.
 Returns
distance – The euclidean distance between the objects.
 Return type
float

index
(name)¶ Returns the index of the closest face for the mesh with the given name.
 Parameters
name (str) – The name of the target object.
 Returns
index – The index of the face in collisoin.
 Return type
int

point
(name)¶ The 3D point of closest distance on the mesh with the given name.
 Parameters
name (str) – The name of the target object.
 Returns
point – The closest point.
 Return type
(3,) float

property

trimesh.collision.
mesh_to_BVH
(mesh)¶ Create a BVHModel object from a Trimesh object
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh) – Input geometry
 Returns
bvh – BVH of input geometry
 Return type
fcl.BVHModel

trimesh.collision.
scene_to_collision
(scene)¶ Create collision objects from a trimesh.Scene object.
 Parameters
scene (trimesh.Scene) – Scene to create collision objects for
 Returns
manager (CollisionManager) – CollisionManager for objects in scene
objects ({node name: CollisionObject}) – Collision objects for nodes in scene
trimesh.comparison module¶
comparison.py¶
Provide methods for quickly hashing and comparing meshes.

trimesh.comparison.
face_ordering
(mesh)¶ Triangles with three different length sides are ordered in two ways: [small edge, medium edge, large edge] (SML) [small edge, large edge, medium edge] (SLM)
This function returns [1, 0, 1], depending on whether the triangle is SML or SLM, and 0 if M == L.
The reason this is useful as it as a rare property that is invariant to translation and rotation but changes when a mesh is reflected or inverted. It is NOT invariant to different tesselations of the same surface.
 Parameters
mesh (trimesh.Trimesh) – Source geometry to calculate ordering on
 Returns
order – Is each face SML (1), SLM (+1), or M==L (0)
 Return type
(len(mesh.faces), ) int

trimesh.comparison.
identifier_hash
(identifier, sigfig=None)¶ Hash an identifier array to a specified number of significant figures.
 Parameters
identifier ((n,) float) – Vector of properties
sigfig ((n,) int) – Number of sigfigs per property
 Returns
md5 – MD5 hash of identifier
 Return type
str

trimesh.comparison.
identifier_simple
(mesh)¶ Return a basic identifier for a mesh, consisting of properties that have been hand tuned to be somewhat robust to rigid transformations and different tesselations.
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh object) – Source geometry
 Returns
identifier – Identifying values of the mesh
 Return type
(6,) float
trimesh.constants module¶

class
trimesh.constants.
ResolutionPath
(**kwargs)¶ Bases:
object
 res.seg_frac: when discretizing curves, what percentage of the drawing
scale should we aim to make a single segment
res.seg_angle: when discretizing curves, what angle should a section span res.max_sections: when discretizing splines, what is the maximum number
of segments per control point
 res.min_sections: when discretizing splines, what is the minimum number
of segments per control point
res.export: format string to use when exporting floating point vertices

class
trimesh.constants.
ToleranceMesh
(**kwargs)¶ Bases:
object
ToleranceMesh objects hold tolerance information about meshes.
 Parameters
tol.zero (float) – Floating point numbers smaller than this are considered zero
tol.merge (float) – When merging vertices, consider vertices closer than this to be the same vertex. Here we use the same value (1e8) as SolidWorks uses, according to their documentation.
tol.planar (float) – The maximum distance from a plane a point can be and still be considered to be on the plane
tol.facet_threshold (float) – Threshold for two facets to be considered coplanar
tol.strict (bool) – If True, run additional in process checks (slower)

class
trimesh.constants.
TolerancePath
(**kwargs)¶ Bases:
object
TolerancePath objects contain tolerance information used in Path objects.
 Parameters
tol.zero (float) – Floating point numbers smaller than this are considered zero
tol.merge (float) – When merging vertices, consider vertices closer than this to be the same vertex. Here we use the same value (1e8) as SolidWorks uses, according to their documentation.
tol.planar (float) – The maximum distance from a plane a point can be and still be considered to be on the plane
tol.seg_frac (float) –
 When simplifying line segments what percentage of the drawing
scale can a segment be and have a curve fitted
tol.seg_angle (when simplifying line segments to arcs, what angle) – can a segment span to be acceptable.
tol.aspect_frac (when simplifying line segments to closed arcs (circles)) – what percentage can the aspect ratio differfrom 1:1 before escaping the fit early
tol.radius_frac (when simplifying line segments to arcs, what percentage) – of the fit radius can vertices deviate to be acceptable
tol.radius_min (when simplifying line segments to arcs, what is the minimum) – radius multiplied by document scale for an acceptable fit
tol.radius_max (when simplifying line segments to arcs, what is the maximum) – radius multiplied by document scale for an acceptable fit
tol.tangent (when simplifying line segments to curves, what is the maximum) – angle the end sections can deviate from tangent that is acceptable.

trimesh.constants.
log_time
(method)¶ A decorator for methods which will time the method and then emit a log.debug message with the method name and how long it took to execute.
trimesh.convex module¶
convex.py
Deal with creating and checking convex objects in 2, 3 and N dimensions.
Convex is defined as: 1) “Convex, meaning “curving out” or “extending outward” (compare to concave) 2) having an outline or surface curved like the exterior of a circle or sphere. 3) (of a polygon) having only interior angles measuring less than 180

trimesh.convex.
adjacency_projections
(mesh)¶ Test if a mesh is convex by projecting the vertices of a triangle onto the normal of its adjacent face.
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh) – Input geometry
 Returns
projection – Distance of projection of adjacent vertex onto plane
 Return type
(len(mesh.face_adjacency),) float

trimesh.convex.
convex_hull
(obj, qhull_options='QbB Pp QJn')¶ Get a new Trimesh object representing the convex hull of the current mesh, with proper normals and watertight. Requires scipy >.12.

trimesh.convex.
hull_points
(obj, qhull_options='QbB Pp')¶ Try to extract a convex set of points from multiple input formats.
 Parameters
obj (Trimesh object) – (n,d) points (m,) Trimesh objects
 Returns
points
 Return type
(o,d) convex set of points
trimesh.creation module¶
creation.py¶
Create meshes from primitives, or with operations.

trimesh.creation.
annulus
(r_min=1.0, r_max=2.0, height=1.0, sections=32, transform=None, **kwargs)¶ Create a mesh of an annular cylinder along Z, centered at the origin.
 Parameters
r_min (float) – The inner radius of the annular cylinder
r_max (float) – The outer radius of the annular cylinder
height (float) – The height of the annular cylinder
sections (int) – How many pie wedges should the annular cylinder have
**kwargs – passed to Trimesh to create annulus
 Returns
annulus – Mesh of annular cylinder
 Return type

trimesh.creation.
axis
(origin_size=0.04, transform=None, origin_color=None, axis_radius=None, axis_length=None)¶ Return an XYZ axis marker as a Trimesh, which represents position and orientation. If you set the origin size the other parameters will be set relative to it.
 Parameters
transform ((4, 4) float) – Transformation matrix
origin_size (float) – Radius of sphere that represents the origin
origin_color ((3,) float or int, uint8 or float) – Color of the origin
axis_radius (float) – Radius of cylinder that represents x, y, z axis
axis_length (float) – Length of cylinder that represents x, y, z axis
 Returns
marker – Mesh geometry of axis indicators
 Return type

trimesh.creation.
box
(extents=None, transform=None, **kwargs)¶ Return a cuboid.
 Parameters
extents (float, or (3,) float) – Edge lengths
transform ((4, 4) float) – Transformation matrix
**kwargs – passed to Trimesh to create box
 Returns
geometry – Mesh of a cuboid
 Return type

trimesh.creation.
camera_marker
(camera, marker_height=0.4, origin_size=None)¶ Create a visual marker for a camera object, including an axis and FOV.
 Parameters
camera (trimesh.scene.Camera) – Camera object with FOV and transform defined
marker_height (float) – How far along the camera Z should FOV indicators be
origin_size (float) – Sphere radius of the origin (default: marker_height / 10.0)
 Returns
meshes – Contains Trimesh and Path3D objects which can be visualized
 Return type
list

trimesh.creation.
capsule
(height=1.0, radius=1.0, count=[32, 32])¶ Create a mesh of a capsule, or a cylinder with hemispheric ends.
 Parameters
height (float) – Center to center distance of two spheres
radius (float) – Radius of the cylinder and hemispheres
count ((2,) int) – Number of sections on latitude and longitude
 Returns
capsule –
 Capsule geometry with:
cylinder axis is along Z
one hemisphere is centered at the origin
other hemisphere is centered along the Z axis at height
 Return type

trimesh.creation.
cylinder
(radius=1.0, height=1.0, sections=32, segment=None, transform=None, **kwargs)¶ Create a mesh of a cylinder along Z centered at the origin.
 Parameters
radius (float) – The radius of the cylinder
height (float) – The height of the cylinder
sections (int) – How many pie wedges should the cylinder have
segment ((2, 3) float) – Endpoints of axis, overrides transform and height
transform ((4, 4) float) – Transform to apply
**kwargs – passed to Trimesh to create cylinder
 Returns
cylinder – Resulting mesh of a cylinder
 Return type

trimesh.creation.
extrude_polygon
(polygon, height, **kwargs)¶ Extrude a 2D shapely polygon into a 3D mesh
 Parameters
polygon (shapely.geometry.Polygon) – 2D geometry to extrude
height (float) – Distance to extrude polygon along Z
**kwargs – passed to Trimesh
 Returns
mesh – Resulting extrusion as watertight body
 Return type

trimesh.creation.
extrude_triangulation
(vertices, faces, height, **kwargs)¶ Turn a 2D triangulation into a watertight Trimesh.
 Parameters
vertices ((n, 2) float) – 2D vertices
faces ((m, 3) int) – Triangle indexes of vertices
height (float) – Distance to extrude triangulation
**kwargs – passed to Trimesh
 Returns
mesh – Mesh created from extrusion
 Return type

trimesh.creation.
icosahedron
()¶ Create an icosahedron, a 20 faced polyhedron.
 Returns
ico – Icosahederon centered at the origin.
 Return type

trimesh.creation.
icosphere
(subdivisions=3, radius=1.0, color=None)¶ Create an isophere centered at the origin.
 Parameters
subdivisions (int) – How many times to subdivide the mesh. Note that the number of faces will grow as function of 4 ** subdivisions, so you probably want to keep this under ~5
radius (float) – Desired radius of sphere
color ((3,) float or uint8) – Desired color of sphere
 Returns
ico – Meshed sphere
 Return type

trimesh.creation.
random_soup
(face_count=100)¶ Return random triangles as a Trimesh
 Parameters
face_count (int) – Number of faces desired in mesh
 Returns
soup – Geometry with face_count random faces
 Return type

trimesh.creation.
sweep_polygon
(polygon, path, angles=None, **kwargs)¶ Extrude a 2D shapely polygon into a 3D mesh along an arbitrary 3D path. Doesn’t handle sharp curvature.
 Parameters
polygon (shapely.geometry.Polygon) – Profile to sweep along path
path ((n, 3) float) – A path in 3D
angles ((n,) float) – Optional rotation angle relative to prior vertex at each vertex
 Returns
mesh – Geometry of result
 Return type

trimesh.creation.
triangulate_polygon
(polygon, triangle_args='pq30', engine='auto', **kwargs)¶ Given a shapely polygon create a triangulation using one of the python interfaces to triangle.c: > pip install meshpy > pip install triangle
 Parameters
polygon (Shapely.geometry.Polygon) – Polygon object to be triangulated
triangle_args (str) – Passed to triangle.triangulate
engine (str) – ‘meshpy’, ‘triangle’, or ‘auto’
kwargs (passed directly to meshpy.triangle.build:) –
 triangle.build(mesh_info,
verbose=False, refinement_func=None, attributes=False, volume_constraints=True, max_volume=None, allow_boundary_steiner=True, allow_volume_steiner=True, quality_meshing=True, generate_edges=None, generate_faces=False, min_angle=None)
 Returns
vertices ((n, 2) float) – Points in space
faces ((n, 3) int) – Index of vertices that make up triangles

trimesh.creation.
uv_sphere
(radius=1.0, count=[32, 32], theta=None, phi=None)¶ Create a UV sphere (latitude + longitude) centered at the origin. Roughly one order of magnitude faster than an icosphere but slightly uglier.
 Parameters
radius (float) – Radius of sphere
count ((2,) int) – Number of latitude and longitude lines
theta ((n,) float) – Optional theta angles in radians
phi ((n,) float) – Optional phi angles in radians
 Returns
mesh – Mesh of UV sphere with specified parameters
 Return type

trimesh.creation.
validate_polygon
(obj)¶ Make sure an input can be returned as a valid polygon.
 Parameters
obj (shapely.geometry.Polygon, str (wkb), or (n, 2) float) – Object which might be a polygon
 Returns
polygon – Valid polygon object
 Return type
shapely.geometry.Polygon
 Raises
ValueError – If a valid finite area polygon isn’t available
trimesh.curvature module¶
curvature.py¶
Query mesh curvature.

trimesh.curvature.
discrete_gaussian_curvature_measure
(mesh, points, radius)¶ Return the discrete gaussian curvature measure of a sphere centered at a point as detailed in ‘Restricted Delaunay triangulations and normal cycle’, CohenSteiner and Morvan.
 Parameters
points ((n,3) float, list of points in space) –
radius (float, the sphere radius) –
 Returns
gaussian_curvature
 Return type
(n,) float, discrete gaussian curvature measure.

trimesh.curvature.
discrete_mean_curvature_measure
(mesh, points, radius)¶ Return the discrete mean curvature measure of a sphere centered at a point as detailed in ‘Restricted Delaunay triangulations and normal cycle’, CohenSteiner and Morvan.
 Parameters
points ((n,3) float, list of points in space) –
radius (float, the sphere radius) –
 Returns
mean_curvature
 Return type
(n,) float, discrete mean curvature measure.

trimesh.curvature.
face_angles_sparse
(mesh)¶ A sparse matrix representation of the face angles.
 Returns
sparse – dtype: float shape: (len(mesh.vertices), len(mesh.faces))
 Return type
scipy.sparse.coo_matrix with:

trimesh.curvature.
line_ball_intersection
(start_points, end_points, center, radius)¶ Compute the length of the intersection of a line segment with a ball.
 Parameters
start_points ((n,3) float, list of points in space) –
end_points ((n,3) float, list of points in space) –
center ((3,) float, the sphere center) –
radius (float, the sphere radius) –
 Returns
lengths
 Return type
(n,) float, the lengths.

trimesh.curvature.
sphere_ball_intersection
(R, r)¶ Compute the surface area of the intersection of sphere of radius R centered at (0, 0, 0) with a ball of radius r centered at (R, 0, 0).
 Parameters
R (float, sphere radius) –
r (float, ball radius) –
 Returns
area
 Return type
float, the surface are.

trimesh.curvature.
vertex_defects
(mesh)¶ Return the vertex defects, or (2*pi) minus the sum of the angles of every face that includes that vertex.
If a vertex is only included by coplanar triangles, this will be zero. For convex regions this is positive, and concave negative.
 Returns
vertex_defect – Vertex defect at the every vertex
 Return type
(len(self.vertices), ) float
trimesh.decomposition module¶

trimesh.decomposition.
convex_decomposition
(mesh, **kwargs)¶ Compute an approximate convex decomposition of a mesh.
 Parameters
mesh (trimesh.Trimesh) – Mesh to be decomposed into convex parts
 Returns
mesh_args – List of **kwargs for Trimeshes that are nearly convex and approximate the original.
 Return type
list
trimesh.exceptions module¶
exceptions.py¶
Handle things related to exceptions.

class
trimesh.exceptions.
ExceptionModule
(exc)¶ Bases:
object
Create a dummy module which will raise an exception when attributes are accessed.
For soft dependencies we want to survive failing to import but we would like to raise an appropriate error when the functionality is actually requested so the user gets an easily debuggable message.

trimesh.exceptions.
closure
(exc)¶ Return a function which will accept any arguments but raise the exception when called.
 Parameters
exc (Exception) – Will be raised later
 Returns
failed – When called will raise exc
 Return type
function
trimesh.geometry module¶

trimesh.geometry.
align_vectors
(a, b, return_angle=False)¶ Find a transform between two 3D vectors.
Implements the method described here: http://ethaneade.com/rot_between_vectors.pdf
 Parameters
a ((3,) float) – Source vector
b ((3,) float) – Target vector
return_angle (bool) – If True return the angle between the two vectors
 Returns
transform ((4, 4) float) – Homogeneous transform from a to b
angle (float) – Angle between vectors in radians Only returned if return_angle

trimesh.geometry.
faces_to_edges
(faces, return_index=False)¶ Given a list of faces (n,3), return a list of edges (n*3,2)
 Parameters
faces ((n, 3) int) – Vertex indices representing faces
 Returns
edges – Vertex indices representing edges
 Return type
(n*3, 2) int

trimesh.geometry.
index_sparse
(column_count, indices)¶ Return a sparse matrix for which vertices are contained in which faces.
 Returns
sparse (scipy.sparse.coo_matrix of shape (column_count, len(faces))) – dtype is boolean
Examples – ———
In [1] (sparse = faces_sparse(len(mesh.vertices), mesh.faces))
In [2] (sparse.shape)
Out[2] ((12, 20))
In [3] (mesh.faces.shape)
Out[3] ((20, 3))
In [4] (mesh.vertices.shape)
Out[4] ((12, 3))
In [5] (dense = sparse.toarray().astype(int))
In [6] (dense)
Out[6]
array([[1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], – [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1], [1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0], [0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1], [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1]])
In [7] (dense.sum(axis=0))
Out[7] (array([3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3]))

trimesh.geometry.
mean_vertex_normals
(vertex_count, faces, face_normals, **kwargs)¶ Find vertex normals from the mean of the faces that contain that vertex.
 Parameters
vertex_count (int) – The number of vertices faces refer to
faces ((n, 3) int) – List of vertex indices
face_normals ((n, 3) float) – Normal vector for each face
 Returns
vertex_normals – Normals for every vertex Vertices unreferenced by faces will be zero.
 Return type
(vertex_count, 3) float

trimesh.geometry.
plane_transform
(origin, normal)¶ Given the origin and normal of a plane find the transform that will move that plane to be coplanar with the XY plane.
 Parameters
origin ((3,) float) – Point that lies on the plane
normal ((3,) float) – Vector that points along normal of plane
 Returns
transform – Transformation matrix to move points onto XY plane
 Return type
(4,4) float

trimesh.geometry.
triangulate_quads
(quads)¶ Given a set of quad faces, return them as triangle faces.
 Parameters
quads ((n, 4) int) – Vertex indices of quad faces
 Returns
faces – Vertex indices of triangular faces
 Return type
(m, 3) int

trimesh.geometry.
vector_angle
(pairs)¶ Find the angles between pairs of unit vectors.
 Parameters
pairs ((n, 2, 3) float) – Unit vector pairs
 Returns
angles – Angles between vectors in radians
 Return type
(n,) float

trimesh.geometry.
vertex_face_indices
(vertex_count, faces, **kwargs)¶ Find vertex face indices from the faces array of vertices
 Parameters
vertex_count (int) – The number of vertices faces refer to
faces ((n, 3) int) – List of vertex indices
 Returns
vertex_faces – Face indices for every vertex Array padded with 1 in each row for all vertices with fewer face indices than the max number of face indices.
 Return type
(vertex_count, ) int
trimesh.graph module¶
graph.py¶
Deal with graph operations. Primarily deal with graphs in (n,2) edge list form, and abstract the backend graph library being used.
Currently uses networkx, scipy.sparse.csgraph, or graph_tool backends.

trimesh.graph.
connected_component_labels
(edges, node_count=None)¶ Label graph nodes from an edge list, using scipy.sparse.csgraph
 Parameters
edges ((n, 2) int) – Edges of a graph
node_count (int, or None) – The largest node in the graph.
 Returns
labels – Component labels for each node
 Return type
(node_count,) int

trimesh.graph.
connected_components
(edges, min_len=1, nodes=None, engine=None)¶ Find groups of connected nodes from an edge list.
 Parameters
edges ((n,2) int, edges between nodes) –
nodes ((m, ) int, list of nodes that exist) –
min_len (int, minimum length of a component group to return) –
engine (str, which graph engine to use.) – (‘networkx’, ‘scipy’, or ‘graphtool’) If None, will automatically choose fastest available.
 Returns
components
 Return type
(n,) sequence of lists, nodes which are connected

trimesh.graph.
connected_edges
(G, nodes)¶ Given graph G and list of nodes, return the list of edges that are connected to nodes

trimesh.graph.
edges_to_coo
(edges, count=None, data=None)¶ Given an edge list, return a boolean scipy.sparse.coo_matrix representing the edges in matrix form.
 Parameters
edges ((n,2) int) – Edges of a graph
count (int) – The total number of nodes in the graph if None: count = edges.max() + 1
data ((n,) any) – Assign data to each edge, if None will be bool True for each specified edge
 Returns
matrix – Sparse COO
 Return type
(count, count) scipy.sparse.coo_matrix

trimesh.graph.
face_adjacency
(faces=None, mesh=None, return_edges=False)¶ Returns an (n,2) list of face indices. Each pair of faces in the list shares an edge, making them adjacent.
 Parameters
faces ((n, 3) int, or None) – List of vertex indices representing triangles
mesh (Trimesh object) – If passed will used cached edges instead of faces
return_edges (bool) – Return the edges shared by adjacent faces
 Returns
adjacency ((m,2) int) – Indexes of faces that are adjacent
edges ((m,2) int) – Only returned if return_edges is True Indexes of vertices which make up the edges shared by the adjacent faces
Examples
This is useful for lots of things such as finding face connected components: >>> graph = nx.Graph() >>> graph.add_edges_from(mesh.face_adjacency) >>> groups = nx.connected_components(graph_connected)

trimesh.graph.
face_adjacency_radius
(mesh)¶ Compute an approximate radius between adjacent faces.
 Parameters
mesh (trimesh.Trimesh) –
 Returns
radii ((len(self.face_adjacency),) float) – Approximate radius between faces Parallel faces will have a value of np.inf
span ((len(self.face_adjacency),) float) – Perpendicular projection distance of two unshared vertices onto the shared edge
Return the vertex index of the two vertices not in the shared edge between two adjacent faces
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh object) –
 Returns
vid_unshared – Indexes of mesh.vertices
 Return type
(len(mesh.face_adjacency), 2) int

trimesh.graph.
facets
(mesh, engine=None)¶ Find the list of parallel adjacent faces.
 Parameters
mesh (trimesh.Trimesh) –
engine (str) – Which graph engine to use: (‘scipy’, ‘networkx’, ‘graphtool’)
 Returns
facets – Groups of face indexes of parallel adjacent faces.
 Return type
sequence of (n,) int

trimesh.graph.
fill_traversals
(traversals, edges, edges_hash=None)¶ Convert a traversal of a list of edges into a sequence of traversals where every pair of consecutive node indexes is an edge in a passed edge list
 Parameters
traversals (sequence of (m,) int) – Node indexes of traversals of a graph
edges ((n, 2) int) – Pairs of connected node indexes
edges_hash (None, or (n,) int) – Edges sorted along axis 1 then hashed using grouping.hashable_rows
 Returns
splits – Node indexes of connected traversals
 Return type
sequence of (p,) int

trimesh.graph.
graph_to_svg
(graph)¶ Turn a networkx graph into an SVG string, using graphviz dot.
 Parameters
graph (networkx graph) –
 Returns
svg
 Return type
string, pictoral layout in SVG format

trimesh.graph.
is_watertight
(edges, edges_sorted=None)¶  Parameters
edges ((n, 2) int) – List of vertex indices
edges_sorted ((n, 2) int) – Pass vertex indices sorted on axis 1 as a speedup
 Returns
watertight (boolean) – Whether every edge is shared by an even number of faces
winding (boolean) – Whether every shared edge is reversed

trimesh.graph.
multigraph_collect
(G, traversal, attrib=None)¶ Given a MultiDiGraph traversal, collect attributes along it.
 Parameters
G (networkx.MultiDiGraph) –
traversal –
attrib (dict key, name to collect. If None, will return all) –
 Returns
collected
 Return type
(len(traversal)  1) list of attributes

trimesh.graph.
multigraph_paths
(G, source, cutoff=None)¶ For a networkx MultiDiGraph, find all paths from a source node to leaf nodes. This function returns edge instance numbers in addition to nodes, unlike networkx.all_simple_paths.
 Parameters
G (networkx.MultiDiGraph) – Graph to evaluate
source (hashable) – Node to start traversal at
cutoff (int) – Number of nodes to visit If None will visit all nodes
 Returns
traversals – Traversals of the multigraph
 Return type
(n,) list of [(node, edge instance index), ] paths
Given two sets of faces, find the edges which are in both sets.
 Parameters
faces_a ((n,3) int, set of faces) –
faces_b ((m,3) int, set of faces) –
 Returns
shared
 Return type
(p, 2) int, set of edges

trimesh.graph.
smoothed
(mesh, angle)¶ Return a non watertight version of the mesh which will render nicely with smooth shading by disconnecting faces at sharp angles to each other.
 Parameters
mesh (trimesh.Trimesh) – Source geometry
angle (float) – Angle in radians, adjacent faces which have normals below this angle will be smoothed
 Returns
smooth – Geometry with disconnected face patches
 Return type

trimesh.graph.
split
(mesh, only_watertight=True, adjacency=None, engine=None)¶ Split a mesh into multiple meshes from face connectivity.
If only_watertight is true, it will only return watertight meshes and will attempt single triangle/quad repairs.
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh) –
only_watertight (if True, only return watertight components) –
adjacency ((n,2) list of face adjacency to override using the plain) – adjacency calculated automatically.
engine (str, which engine to use. ('networkx', 'scipy', or 'graphtool')) –
 Returns
meshes
 Return type
list of Trimesh objects

trimesh.graph.
split_traversal
(traversal, edges, edges_hash=None)¶ Given a traversal as a list of nodes, split the traversal if a sequential index pair is not in the given edges.
 Parameters
edges ((n, 2) int) – Graph edge indexes
traversal ((m,) int) – Traversal through edges
edge_hash ((n,)) – Edges sorted on axis=1 and passed to grouping.hashable_rows
 Returns
split
 Return type
sequence of (p,) int

trimesh.graph.
traversals
(edges, mode='bfs')¶ Given an edge list, generate a sequence of ordered depth first search traversals, using scipy.csgraph routines.
 Parameters
edges ((n,2) int, undirected edges of a graph) –
mode (str, 'bfs', or 'dfs') –
 Returns
traversals – ordered DFS or BFS traversals of the graph.
 Return type
(m,) sequence of (p,) int,

trimesh.graph.
vertex_adjacency_graph
(mesh)¶ Returns a networkx graph representing the vertices and their connections in the mesh.
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh object) –
 Returns
graph – Graph representing vertices and edges between them where vertices are nodes and edges are edges
 Return type
networkx.Graph
Examples
This is useful for getting nearby vertices for a given vertex, potentially for some simple smoothing techniques. >>> graph = mesh.vertex_adjacency_graph >>> graph.neighbors(0) > [1,3,4]
trimesh.grouping module¶
grouping.py¶
Functions for grouping values and rows.

trimesh.grouping.
blocks
(data, min_len=2, max_len=inf, digits=None, only_nonzero=False)¶ Given an array, find the indices of contiguous blocks of equal values.
 Parameters
data –
min_len (int, the minimum length group to be returned) –
max_len (int, the maximum length group to be retuurned) –
digits (if dealing with floats, how many digits to use) –
only_nonzero (bool, only return blocks of non zero values) –
 Returns
blocks
 Return type
sequence of indices referencing data

trimesh.grouping.
boolean_rows
(a, b, operation=<function intersect1d>)¶ Find the rows in two arrays which occur in both rows.
 Parameters
a ((n, d) int) – Array with row vectors
b ((m, d) int) – Array with row vectors
operation (function) –
 Numpy boolean set operation function:
np.intersect1d np.setdiff1d
 Returns
shared
 Return type
(p, d) array containing rows in both a and b

trimesh.grouping.
clusters
(points, radius)¶ Find clusters of points which have neighbours closer than radius
 Parameters
points ((n, d) float) – Points of dimension d
radius (float) – Max distance between points in a cluster
 Returns
groups – Indices of points in a cluster
 Return type
(m,) sequence of int

trimesh.grouping.
float_to_int
(data, digits=None, dtype=<class 'numpy.int32'>)¶ Given a numpy array of float/bool/int, return as integers.
 Parameters
data ((n, d) float, int, or bool) – Input data
digits (float or int) – Precision for float conversion
dtype (numpy.dtype) – What datatype should result be returned as
 Returns
as_int – Data as integers
 Return type
(n, d) int

trimesh.grouping.
group
(values, min_len=0, max_len=inf)¶ Return the indices of values that are identical
 Parameters
values (1D array) –
min_len (int, the shortest group allowed) – All groups will have len >= min_length
max_len (int, the longest group allowed) – All groups will have len <= max_length
 Returns
groups – IE [0,1,0,1] returns [[0,2], [1,3]]
 Return type
sequence of indices to form groups

trimesh.grouping.
group_distance
(values, distance)¶ Find groups of points which have neighbours closer than radius, where no two points in a group are farther than distance apart.
 Parameters
points ((n, d) float) – Points of dimension d
distance (float) – Max distance between points in a cluster
 Returns
unique ((m, d) float) – Median value of each group
groups ((m) sequence of int) – Indexes of points that make up a group

trimesh.grouping.
group_min
(groups, data)¶ Given a list of groups, find the minimum element of data within each group
 Parameters
groups ((n,) sequence of (q,) int) – Indexes of each group corresponding to each element in data
data ((m,)) – The data that groups indexes reference
 Returns
minimums – Minimum value of data per group
 Return type
(n,)

trimesh.grouping.
group_rows
(data, require_count=None, digits=None)¶ Returns index groups of duplicate rows, for example: [[1,2], [3,4], [1,2]] will return [[0,2], [1]]
 Parameters
data ((n,m) array) –
require_count (only returns groups of a specified length, eg:) –
require_count = 2 [[1,2], [3,4], [1,2]] will return [[0,2]]
Note that using require_count allows numpy advanced indexing to be used in place of looping and checking hashes, and as a consequence is ~10x faster.
digits (If data is floating point, how many decimals to look at.) – If this is None, the value in TOL_MERGE will be turned into a digit count and used.
 Returns
groups – If require_count != None, shape will be (j, require_count) If require_count is None, shape will be irregular (AKA a sequence)
 Return type
List or sequence of indices from data indicating identical rows.

trimesh.grouping.
group_vectors
(vectors, angle=0.0001, include_negative=False)¶ Group vectors based on an angle tolerance, with the option to include negative vectors.
 Parameters
vectors ((n,3) float) – Direction vector
angle (float) – Group vectors closer than this angle in radians
include_negative (bool) – If True consider the same: [0,0,1] and [0,0,1]
 Returns
new_vectors ((m,3) float) – Direction vector
groups ((m,) sequence of int) – Indices of source vectors

trimesh.grouping.
hashable_rows
(data, digits=None)¶ We turn our array into integers based on the precision given by digits and then put them in a hashable format.
 Parameters
data ((n, m) array) – Input data
digits (int or None) – How many digits to add to hash if data is floating point If None, tol.merge will be used
 Returns
hashable – Custom data type which can be sorted or used as hash keys
 Return type
(n,) array

trimesh.grouping.
merge_runs
(data, digits=None)¶ Merge duplicate sequential values. This differs from unique_ordered in that values can occur in multiple places in the sequence, but only consecutive repeats are removed
 Parameters
data ((n,) float or int) –
 Returns
merged
 Return type
(m,) float or int
Examples
In [1]: a Out[1]: array([1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 0,
3, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 6, 6, 7, 7, 8, 8, 9, 9, 9])
In [2]: trimesh.grouping.merge_runs(a) Out[2]: array([1, 0, 1, 2, 0, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9])

trimesh.grouping.
merge_vertices
(mesh, digits=None, textured=True, uv_digits=4)¶ Removes duplicate vertices based on integer hashes of each row.
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh object) – Mesh to merge vertices on
digits (int) – How many digits to consider for vertices If not specified uses tol.merge
textured (bool) – If True, for textured meshes only merge vertices with identical positions AND UV coordinates. No effect on untextured meshes
uv_digits (int) – Number of digits to consider for UV coordinates.

trimesh.grouping.
unique_bincount
(values, minlength=0, return_inverse=False, return_counts=False)¶ For arrays of integers find unique values using bin counting. Roughly 10x faster for correct input than np.unique
 Parameters
values ((n,) int) – Values to find unique members of
minlength (int) – Maximum value that will occur in values (values.max())
return_inverse (bool) – If True, return an inverse such that unique[inverse] == values
return_counts (bool) – If True, also return the number of times each unique item appears in values
 Returns
unique ((m,) int) – Unique values in original array
inverse ((n,) int, optional) – An array such that unique[inverse] == values Only returned if return_inverse is True
counts ((m,) int, optional) – An array holding the counts of each unique item in values Only returned if return_counts is True

trimesh.grouping.
unique_float
(data, return_index=False, return_inverse=False, digits=None)¶ Identical to the numpy.unique command, except evaluates floating point numbers, using a specified number of digits.
If digits isn’t specified, the library default TOL_MERGE will be used.

trimesh.grouping.
unique_ordered
(data)¶ Returns the same as np.unique, but ordered as per the first occurrence of the unique value in data.
Examples
In [1]: a = [0, 3, 3, 4, 1, 3, 0, 3, 2, 1]
In [2]: np.unique(a) Out[2]: array([0, 1, 2, 3, 4])
In [3]: trimesh.grouping.unique_ordered(a) Out[3]: array([0, 3, 4, 1, 2])

trimesh.grouping.
unique_rows
(data, digits=None)¶ Returns indices of unique rows. It will return the first occurrence of a row that is duplicated: [[1,2], [3,4], [1,2]] will return [0,1]
 Parameters
data ((n,m) set of floating point data) –
digits (how many digits to consider for the purposes of uniqueness) –
 Returns
unique ((j) array, index in data which is a unique row)
inverse ((n) length array to reconstruct original) – example: unique[inverse] == data

trimesh.grouping.
unique_value_in_row
(data, unique=None)¶ For a 2D array of integers find the position of a value in each row which only occurs once. If there are more than one value per row which occur once, the last one is returned.
 Parameters
data ((n,d) int) –
unique – speedup purposes only, generated from np.unique if not passed
 Returns
result
 Return type
(n,d) bool, with one or zero True values per row.
Examples
 In [0]: r = np.array([[1, 1, 1],
[1, 1, 1], [1, 1, 1], [1, 1, 1], [1, 1, 1]], dtype=np.int8)
In [1]: unique_value_in_row(r) Out[1]:
 array([[ True, False, False],
[False, True, False], [ True, False, False], [False, True, False], [False, True, False]], dtype=bool)
In [2]: unique_value_in_row(r).sum(axis=1) Out[2]: array([1, 1, 1, 1, 1])
In [3]: r[unique_value_in_row(r)] Out[3]: array([1, 1, 1, 1, 1], dtype=int8)
trimesh.inertia module¶
inertia.py¶
Functions for dealing with inertia tensors.
Results validated against known geometries and checked for internal consistency.

trimesh.inertia.
cylinder_inertia
(mass, radius, height, transform=None)¶ Return the inertia tensor of a cylinder.
 Parameters
mass (float) – Mass of cylinder
radius (float) – Radius of cylinder
height (float) – Height of cylinder
transform ((4,4) float) – Transformation of cylinder
 Returns
inertia – Inertia tensor
 Return type
(3,3) float

trimesh.inertia.
principal_axis
(inertia)¶ Find the principal components and principal axis of inertia from the inertia tensor.
 Parameters
inertia ((3,3) float) – Inertia tensor
 Returns
components ((3,) float) – Principal components of inertia
vectors ((3,3) float) – Row vectors pointing along the principal axes of inertia

trimesh.inertia.
radial_symmetry
(mesh)¶ Check whether a mesh has rotational symmetry.
 Returns
symmetry (None or str) – None No rotational symmetry ‘radial’ Symmetric around an axis ‘spherical’ Symmetric around a point
axis (None or (3,) float) – Rotation axis or point
section (None or (3, 2) float) – If radial symmetry provide vectors to get cross section

trimesh.inertia.
sphere_inertia
(mass, radius)¶ Return the inertia tensor of a sphere.
 Parameters
mass (float) – Mass of sphere
radius (float) – Radius of sphere
 Returns
inertia – Inertia tensor
 Return type
(3, 3) float

trimesh.inertia.
transform_inertia
(transform, inertia_tensor)¶ Transform an inertia tensor to a new frame.
More details in OCW PDF: MIT16_07F09_Lec26.pdf
 Parameters
transform ((3, 3) or (4, 4) float) – Transformation matrix
inertia_tensor ((3, 3) float) – Inertia tensor
 Returns
transformed – Inertia tensor in new frame
 Return type
(3, 3) float
trimesh.integrate module¶
integrate.py¶
Utilities for integrating functions over meshes surfaces.

trimesh.integrate.
substitute_barycentric
(function)¶

trimesh.integrate.
symbolic_barycentric
(function)¶ Symbolically integrate a function(x,y,z) across a triangle or mesh.
 Parameters
function (string or sympy expression) – x, y, z will be replaced with a barycentric representation and the the function is integrated across the triangle.
 Returns
evaluator (numpy lambda function of result which takes a mesh)
expr (sympy expression of result)
Examples
In [1]: function = ‘1’
In [2]: integrator, expr = integrate_barycentric(function)
In [3]: integrator Out[3]: <__main__.evaluator instance at 0x7f66cd2a6200>
In [4]: expr Out[4]: 1/2
In [5]: result = integrator(mesh)
In [6]: mesh.area Out[6]: 34.641016151377542
In [7]: result.sum() Out[7]: 34.641016151377542
trimesh.intersections module¶
intersections.py¶
Primarily meshplane intersections (slicing).

trimesh.intersections.
mesh_multiplane
(mesh, plane_origin, plane_normal, heights)¶ A utility function for slicing a mesh by multiple parallel planes, which caches the dot product operation.
 Parameters
mesh (trimesh.Trimesh) – Geometry to be sliced by planes
plane_normal ((3,) float) – Normal vector of plane
plane_origin ((3,) float) – Point on a plane
heights ((m,) float) – Offset distances from plane to slice at
 Returns
lines ((m,) sequence of (n, 2, 2) float) – Lines in space for m planes
to_3D ((m, 4, 4) float) – Transform to move each section back to 3D
face_index ((m,) sequence of (n,) int) – Indexes of mesh.faces for each segment

trimesh.intersections.
mesh_plane
(mesh, plane_normal, plane_origin, return_faces=False, cached_dots=None)¶ Find a the intersections between a mesh and a plane, returning a set of line segments on that plane.
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh object) – Source mesh to slice
plane_normal ((3,) float) – Normal vector of plane to intersect with mesh
plane_origin ((3,) float) – Point on plane to intersect with mesh
return_faces (bool) – If True return face index each line is from
cached_dots ((n, 3) float) – If an external function has stored dot products pass them here to avoid recomputing
 Returns
lines ((m, 2, 3) float) – List of 3D line segments in space
face_index ((m,) int) – Index of mesh.faces for each line Only returned if return_faces was True

trimesh.intersections.
plane_lines
(plane_origin, plane_normal, endpoints, line_segments=True)¶ Calculate planeline intersections
 Parameters
plane_origin ((3,) float) – Point on plane
plane_normal ((3,) float) – Plane normal vector
endpoints ((2, n, 3) float) – Points defining lines to be tested
line_segments (bool) – If True, only returns intersections as valid if vertices from endpoints are on different sides of the plane.
 Returns
intersections ((m, 3) float) – Cartesian intersection points
valid ((n, 3) bool) – Indicate whether a valid intersection exists for each input line segment

trimesh.intersections.
planes_lines
(plane_origins, plane_normals, line_origins, line_directions)¶ Given one line per plane, find the intersection points.
 Parameters
plane_origins ((n,3) float) – Point on each plane
plane_normals ((n,3) float) – Normal vector of each plane
line_origins ((n,3) float) – Point at origin of each line
line_directions ((n,3) float) – Direction vector of each line
 Returns
on_plane ((n,3) float) – Points on specified planes
valid ((n,) bool) – Did plane intersect line or not

trimesh.intersections.
slice_faces_plane
(vertices, faces, plane_normal, plane_origin, cached_dots=None)¶ Slice a mesh (given as a set of faces and vertices) with a plane, returning a new mesh (again as a set of faces and vertices) that is the portion of the original mesh to the positive normal side of the plane.
 Parameters
vertices ((n, 3) float) – Vertices of source mesh to slice
faces ((n, 3) int) – Faces of source mesh to slice
plane_normal ((3,) float) – Normal vector of plane to intersect with mesh
plane_origin ((3,) float) – Point on plane to intersect with mesh
cached_dots ((n, 3) float) – If an external function has stored dot products pass them here to avoid recomputing
 Returns
new_vertices ((n, 3) float) – Vertices of sliced mesh
new_faces ((n, 3) int) – Faces of sliced mesh

trimesh.intersections.
slice_mesh_plane
(mesh, plane_normal, plane_origin, **kwargs)¶ Slice a mesh with a plane, returning a new mesh that is the portion of the original mesh to the positive normal side of the plane
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh object) – Source mesh to slice
plane_normal ((3,) float) – Normal vector of plane to intersect with mesh
plane_origin ((3,) float) – Point on plane to intersect with mesh
cap (bool) – If True, cap the result with a triangulated polygon
cached_dots ((n, 3) float) – If an external function has stored dot products pass them here to avoid recomputing
 Returns
new_mesh – Sliced mesh
 Return type
Trimesh object
trimesh.interval module¶
interval.py¶
 Deal with 1D intervals which are defined by:
[start position, end position]

trimesh.interval.
check
(a, b, digits)¶ Check input ranges, convert them to vector form, and get a fixed precision integer version of them.
 Parameters
a ((2, ) or (2, n) float) – Start and end of a 1D interval
b ((2, ) or (2, n) float) – Start and end of a 1D interval
digits (int) – How many digits to consider
 Returns
a ((2, n) float) – Ranges as vector
b ((2, n) float) – Ranges as vector
a_int ((2, n) int64) – Ranges rounded to digits, as vector
b_int ((2, n) int64) – Ranges rounded to digits, as vector
is_1D (bool) – If True, input was single pair of ranges

trimesh.interval.
intersection
(a, b, digits=8)¶ Given a pair of ranges, merge them in to one range if they overlap at all
 Parameters
a ((2, ) float) – Start and end of a 1D interval
b ((2, ) float) – Start and end of a 1D interval
digits (int) – How many digits to consider
 Returns
intersects (bool or (n,) bool) – Indicates if the ranges overlap at all
new_range ((2, ) or (2, 2) float) – The unioned range from the two inputs, or both of the original ranges if not overlapping
trimesh.nsphere module¶
nsphere.py¶
Functions for fitting and minimizing nspheres: circles, spheres, hyperspheres, etc.

trimesh.nsphere.
fit_nsphere
(points, prior=None)¶ Fit an nsphere to a set of points using least squares.
 Parameters
points ((n, d) float) – Points in space
prior ((d,) float) – Best guess for center of nsphere
 Returns
center ((d,) float) – Location of center
radius (float) – Mean radius across circle
error (float) – Peak to peak value of deviation from mean radius

trimesh.nsphere.
is_nsphere
(points)¶ Check if a list of points is an nsphere.
 Parameters
points ((n, dimension) float) – Points in space
 Returns
check – True if input points are on an nsphere
 Return type
bool

trimesh.nsphere.
minimum_nsphere
(obj)¶ Compute the minimum n sphere for a mesh or a set of points.
Uses the fact that the minimum n sphere will be centered at one of the vertices of the furthest site voronoi diagram, which is n*log(n) but should be pretty fast due to using the scipy/qhull implementations of convex hulls and voronoi diagrams.
 Parameters
obj ((n, d) float or trimesh.Trimesh) – Points or mesh to find minimum bounidng nsphere
 Returns
center ((d,) float) – Center of fitted n sphere
radius (float) – Radius of fitted nsphere
trimesh.parent module¶
parent.py¶
The base class for Trimesh, PointCloud, and Scene objects

class
trimesh.parent.
Geometry
¶ Bases:
abc.ABC
Parent of geometry classes.
The Geometry object is the parent object of geometry classes, including: Trimesh, PointCloud, and Scene objects.
By decorating a method with abc.abstractmethod it just means the objects that inherit from Geometry MUST implement those methods.

apply_scale
(scaling)¶ Scale the mesh equally on all axis.
 Parameters
scaling (float) – Scale factor to apply to the mesh

abstract
apply_transform
(matrix)¶

apply_translation
(translation)¶ Translate the current mesh.
 Parameters
translation ((3,) float) – Translation in XYZ

property
bounding_box
¶ An axis aligned bounding box for the current mesh.
 Returns
aabb – Box object with transform and extents defined representing the axis aligned bounding box of the mesh
 Return type

property
bounding_box_oriented
¶ An oriented bounding box for the current mesh.
 Returns
obb – Box object with transform and extents defined representing the minimum volume oriented bounding box of the mesh
 Return type

property
bounding_cylinder
¶ A minimum volume bounding cylinder for the current mesh.
 Returns
mincyl – Cylinder primitive containing current mesh
 Return type

property
bounding_primitive
¶ The minimum volume primitive (box, sphere, or cylinder) that bounds the mesh.
 Returns
bounding_primitive – Smallest primitive which bounds the mesh: trimesh.primitives.Sphere trimesh.primitives.Box trimesh.primitives.Cylinder
 Return type
object

property
bounding_sphere
¶ A minimum volume bounding sphere for the current mesh.
Note that the Sphere primitive returned has an unpadded, exact sphere_radius so while the distance of every vertex of the current mesh from sphere_center will be less than sphere_radius, the faceted sphere primitive may not contain every vertex
 Returns
minball – Sphere primitive containing current mesh
 Return type

abstract property
bounds
¶

abstract
copy
()¶

abstract property
extents
¶

abstract
is_empty
()¶

abstract
show
()¶

trimesh.permutate module¶
permutate.py¶
Randomly deform meshes in different ways.

class
trimesh.permutate.
Permutator
(mesh)¶ Bases:
object

noise
(magnitude=None)¶ Add gaussian noise to every vertex of a mesh. Makes no effort to maintain topology or sanity.
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh object (will not be mutated)) –
magnitude (float, what is the maximum distance per axis we can displace a vertex.) – Default value is mesh.scale/100.0
 Returns
permutated
 Return type
Trimesh object, input mesh with noise applied

tessellation
()¶ Subdivide each face of a mesh into three faces with the new vertex randomly placed inside the old face.
This produces a mesh with exactly the same surface area and volume but with different tessellation.
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh object) –
 Returns
permutated
 Return type
Trimesh object with remeshed facets

transform
()¶ Return a permutated variant of a mesh by randomly reording faces and rotatating + translating a mesh by a random matrix.
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh object (input will not be altered by this function)) –
 Returns
permutated – rotated and reordered.
 Return type
Trimesh object, same faces as input mesh but


trimesh.permutate.
noise
(mesh, magnitude=None)¶ Add gaussian noise to every vertex of a mesh. Makes no effort to maintain topology or sanity.
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh object (will not be mutated)) –
magnitude (float, what is the maximum distance per axis we can displace a vertex.) – Default value is mesh.scale/100.0
 Returns
permutated
 Return type
Trimesh object, input mesh with noise applied

trimesh.permutate.
tessellation
(mesh)¶ Subdivide each face of a mesh into three faces with the new vertex randomly placed inside the old face.
This produces a mesh with exactly the same surface area and volume but with different tessellation.
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh object) –
 Returns
permutated
 Return type
Trimesh object with remeshed facets

trimesh.permutate.
transform
(mesh, translation_scale=1000.0)¶ Return a permutated variant of a mesh by randomly reording faces and rotatating + translating a mesh by a random matrix.
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh object (input will not be altered by this function)) –
 Returns
permutated – rotated and reordered.
 Return type
Trimesh object, same faces as input mesh but
trimesh.points module¶
points.py¶
Functions dealing with (n, d) points.

class
trimesh.points.
PointCloud
(vertices, colors=None, color=None)¶ Bases:
trimesh.parent.Geometry
Hold 3D points in an object which can be visualized in a scene.

apply_transform
(transform)¶ Apply a homogeneous transformation to the PointCloud object in place.
 Parameters
transform ((4, 4) float) – Homogeneous transformation to apply to PointCloud

property
bounds
¶ The axis aligned bounds of the PointCloud
 Returns
bounds – Miniumum, Maximum verteex
 Return type
(2, 3) float

property
centroid
¶ The mean vertex position
 Returns
centroid – Mean vertex position
 Return type
(3,) float

property
colors
¶ Stored per point color
 Returns
colors – Per point RGBA color
 Return type
(len(self.vertices), 4) np.uint8

property
convex_hull
¶ A convex hull of every point.
 Returns
convex_hull – A watertight mesh of the hull of the points
 Return type

copy
()¶ Safely get a copy of the current point cloud.
Copied objects will have emptied caches to avoid memory issues and so may be slow on initial operations until caches are regenerated.
Current object will not have its cache cleared.
 Returns
copied – Copy of current point cloud
 Return type

property
extents
¶ The size of the axis aligned bounds
 Returns
extents – Edge length of axis aligned bounding box
 Return type
(3,) float

property
is_empty
¶ Are there any vertices defined or not.
 Returns
empty – True if no vertices defined
 Return type
bool

md5
()¶ Get an MD5 hash of the current vertices.
 Returns
md5 – Hash of self.vertices
 Return type
str

merge_vertices
()¶ Merge vertices closer than tol.merge (default: 1e8)

scene
()¶ A scene containing just the PointCloud
 Returns
scene – Scene object containing this PointCloud
 Return type

property
shape
¶ Get the shape of the pointcloud
 Returns
shape – Shape of vertex array
 Return type
(2,) int

show
(**kwargs)¶ Open a viewer window displaying the current PointCloud

property
vertices
¶ Vertices of the PointCloud
 Returns
vertices – Points in the PointCloud
 Return type
(n, 3) float


trimesh.points.
k_means
(points, k, **kwargs)¶ Find k centroids that attempt to minimize the k means problem: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metric_kcenter
 Parameters
points ((n, d) float) – Points in a space
k (int) – Number of centroids to compute
**kwargs (dict) – Passed directly to scipy.cluster.vq.kmeans
 Returns
centroids ((k, d) float) – Points in some space
labels ((n) int) – Indexes for which points belong to which centroid

trimesh.points.
major_axis
(points)¶ Returns an approximate vector representing the major axis of points
 Parameters
points ((n, dimension) float, points in space) –
 Returns
axis
 Return type
(dimension,) float, vector along approximate major axis

trimesh.points.
plane_fit
(points)¶ Given a set of points, find an origin and normal using SVD.
 Parameters
points ((n,3) float) – Points in 3D space
 Returns
C ((3,) float) – Point on the plane
N ((3,) float) – Normal vector of plane

trimesh.points.
plot_points
(points, show=True)¶ Plot an (n,3) list of points using matplotlib
 Parameters
points ((n, 3) float) – Points in space
show (bool) – If False, will not show until plt.show() is called

trimesh.points.
point_plane_distance
(points, plane_normal, plane_origin=[0.0, 0.0, 0.0])¶ The minimum perpendicular distance of a point to a plane.
 Parameters
points ((n, 3) float, points in space) –
plane_normal ((3,) float, normal vector) –
plane_origin ((3,) float, plane origin in space) –
 Returns
distances
 Return type
(n,) float, distance from point to plane

trimesh.points.
project_to_plane
(points, plane_normal=[0, 0, 1], plane_origin=[0, 0, 0], transform=None, return_transform=False, return_planar=True)¶ Projects a set of (n,3) points onto a plane.
 Parameters
points ((n,3) array of points) –
plane_normal –
plane_origin –
transform (None or (4,4) matrix. If specified, normal/origin are ignored) –
return_transform (bool, if true returns the (4,4) matrix used to project points) – onto a plane
return_planar (bool, if True, returns (n,2) points. If False, returns) – (n,3), where the Z column consists of zeros

trimesh.points.
radial_sort
(points, origin, normal)¶ Sorts a set of points radially (by angle) around an origin/normal.
 Parameters
points ((n,3) float, points in space) –
origin ((3,) float, origin to sort around) –
normal ((3,) float, vector to sort around) –
 Returns
ordered
 Return type
(n,3) flot, re ordered points in space

trimesh.points.
remove_close
(points, radius)¶ Given an (n, m) set of points where n=(23) return a list of points where no point is closer than radius.
 Parameters
points ((n, dimension) float) – Points in space
radius (float) – Minimum radius between result points
 Returns
culled ((m, dimension) float) – Points in space
mask ((n,) bool) – Which points from the original set were returned

trimesh.points.
tsp
(points, start=0)¶ Find an ordering of points where each is visited and the next point is the closest in euclidean distance, and if there are multiple points with equal distance go to an arbitrary one.
Assumes every point is visitable from every other point, i.e. the travelling salesman problem on a fully connected graph. It is not a MINIMUM traversal; rather it is a “not totally goofy traversal, quickly.” On random points this traversal is often ~20x shorter than random ordering.
 Parameters
points ((n, dimension) float) – ND points in space
start (int) – The index of points we should start at
 Returns
traversal ((n,) int) – Ordered traversal visiting every point
distances ((n  1,) float) – The euclidean distance between points in traversal
trimesh.poses module¶
poses.py¶
Find stable orientations of meshes.

trimesh.poses.
compute_stable_poses
(mesh, center_mass=None, sigma=0.0, n_samples=1, threshold=0.0)¶ Computes stable orientations of a mesh and their quasistatic probabilites.
This method samples the location of the center of mass from a multivariate gaussian with the mean at the center of mass, and a covariance equal to and identity matrix times sigma, over n_samples.
For each sample, it computes the stable resting poses of the mesh on a a planar workspace and evaluates the probabilities of landing in each pose if the object is dropped onto the table randomly.
This method returns the 4x4 homogeneous transform matrices that place the shape against the planar surface with the zaxis pointing upwards and a list of the probabilities for each pose.
The transforms and probabilties that are returned are sorted, with the most probable pose first.
 Parameters
mesh (trimesh.Trimesh) – The target mesh
com ((3,) float) – Rhe object center of mass. If None, this method assumes uniform density and watertightness and computes a center of mass explicitly
sigma (float) – Rhe covariance for the multivariate gaussian used to sample center of mass locations
n_samples (int) – The number of samples of the center of mass location
threshold (float) – The probability value at which to threshold returned stable poses
 Returns
transforms ((n, 4, 4) float) – The homogeneous matrices that transform the object to rest in a stable pose, with the new zaxis pointing upwards from the table and the object just touching the table.
probs ((n,) float) – Probability in (0, 1) for each pose
trimesh.primitives module¶
primitives.py¶
Subclasses of Trimesh objects that are parameterized as primitives.
Useful because you can move boxes and spheres around, and then use trimesh operations on them at any point.

class
trimesh.primitives.
Box
(*args, **kwargs)¶ Bases:
trimesh.primitives._Primitive

property
is_oriented
¶ Returns whether or not the current box is rotated at all.

sample_grid
(count=None, step=None)¶ Return a 3D grid which is contained by the box. Samples are either ‘step’ distance apart, or there are ‘count’ samples per box side.
 Parameters
count (int or (3,) int) – If specified samples are spaced with np.linspace
step (float or (3,) float) – If specified samples are spaced with np.arange
 Returns
grid – Points inside the box
 Return type
(n, 3) float

sample_volume
(count)¶ Return random samples from inside the volume of the box.
 Parameters
count (int) – Number of samples to return
 Returns
samples – Points inside the volume
 Return type
(count, 3) float

property
volume
¶ Volume of the box Primitive.
 Returns
volume
 Return type
float, volume of box

property

class
trimesh.primitives.
Capsule
(*args, **kwargs)¶ Bases:
trimesh.primitives._Primitive

property
direction
¶ The direction of the capsule’s axis.
 Returns
axis
 Return type
(3,) float, vector along the cylinder axis

property

class
trimesh.primitives.
Cylinder
(*args, **kwargs)¶ Bases:
trimesh.primitives._Primitive

buffer
(distance)¶ Return a cylinder primitive which covers the source cylinder by distance: radius is inflated by distance, height by twice the distance.
 Parameters
distance (float) – Distance to inflate cylinder radius and height
 Returns
buffered – Cylinder primitive inflated by distance
 Return type

property
direction
¶ The direction of the cylinder’s axis.
 Returns
axis
 Return type
(3,) float, vector along the cylinder axis

property
moment_inertia
¶ The analytic inertia tensor of the cylinder primitive.
 Returns
tensor
 Return type
(3,3) float, 3D inertia tensor

property
segment
¶ A line segment which if inflated by cylinder radius would represent the cylinder primitive.
 Returns
segment – Points representing a single line segment
 Return type
(2, 3) float

property
volume
¶ The analytic volume of the cylinder primitive.
 Returns
volume – Volume of the cylinder
 Return type
float


class
trimesh.primitives.
Extrusion
(*args, **kwargs)¶ Bases:
trimesh.primitives._Primitive

property
area
¶ The surface area of the primitive extrusion.
Calculated from polygon and height to avoid mesh creation.
 Returns
area
 Return type
float, surface area of 3D extrusion

buffer
(distance)¶ Return a new Extrusion object which is expanded in profile and in height by a specified distance.
 Returns
buffered
 Return type
Extrusion object

property
direction
¶ Based on the extrudes transform, what is the vector along which the polygon will be extruded
 Returns
direction – identity matrix this will be [0.0, 0.0, 1.0]
 Return type
(3,) float vector. If self.primitive.transform is an

slide
(distance)¶ Alter the transform of the current extrusion to slide it along its extrude_direction vector
 Parameters
distance (float, distance along self.extrude_direction to move) –

property
volume
¶ The volume of the primitive extrusion.
Calculated from polygon and height to avoid mesh creation.
 Returns
volume
 Return type
float, volume of 3D extrusion

property

class
trimesh.primitives.
Sphere
(*args, **kwargs)¶ Bases:
trimesh.primitives._Primitive

apply_transform
(matrix)¶ Apply a transform to the sphere primitive
 Parameters
matrix ((4,4) float, homogeneous transformation) –

property
area
¶ Surface area of the current sphere primitive.
 Returns
area
 Return type
float, surface area of the sphere Primitive

property
bounding_box_oriented
¶ An oriented bounding box for the current mesh.
 Returns
obb – Box object with transform and extents defined representing the minimum volume oriented bounding box of the mesh
 Return type

property
bounds
¶ The axis aligned bounds of the faces of the mesh.
 Returns
bounds – Bounding box with [min, max] coordinates
 Return type
(2, 3) float

property
moment_inertia
¶ The analytic inertia tensor of the sphere primitive.
 Returns
tensor
 Return type
(3,3) float, 3D inertia tensor

property
volume
¶ Volume of the current sphere primitive.
 Returns
volume
 Return type
float, volume of the sphere Primitive

trimesh.proximity module¶
proximity.py¶
Query mesh point proximity.

class
trimesh.proximity.
ProximityQuery
(mesh)¶ Bases:
object
Proximity queries for the current mesh.

on_surface
(**kwargs)¶ Given list of points, for each point find the closest point on any triangle of the mesh.
 Parameters
points ((m,3) float, points in space) –
 Returns
closest ((m,3) float, closest point on triangles for each point)
distance ((m,) float, distance)
triangle_id ((m,) int, index of closest triangle for each point)

signed_distance
(points)¶ Find the signed distance from a mesh to a list of points.
Points OUTSIDE the mesh will have NEGATIVE distance
Points within tol.merge of the surface will have POSITIVE distance
Points INSIDE the mesh will have POSITIVE distance
 Parameters
points ((n,3) float, list of points in space) –
 Returns
signed_distance
 Return type
(n,3) float, signed distance from point to mesh

vertex
(points)¶ Given a set of points, return the closest vertex index to each point
 Parameters
points ((n,3) float, list of points in space) –
 Returns
distance ((n,) float, distance from source point to vertex)
vertex_id ((n,) int, index of mesh.vertices which is closest)


trimesh.proximity.
closest_point
(mesh, points)¶ Given a mesh and a list of points, find the closest point on any triangle.
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh object) –
points ((m,3) float, points in space) –
 Returns
closest ((m,3) float, closest point on triangles for each point)
distance ((m,) float, distance)
triangle_id ((m,) int, index of triangle containing closest point)

trimesh.proximity.
closest_point_naive
(mesh, points)¶ Given a mesh and a list of points find the closest point on any triangle.
Does this by constructing a very large intermediate array and comparing every point to every triangle.
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh) – Takes mesh to have same interfaces as closest_point
points ((m, 3) float) – Points in space
 Returns
closest ((m, 3) float) – Closest point on triangles for each point
distance ((m,) float) – Distances between point and triangle
triangle_id ((m,) int) – Index of triangle containing closest point

trimesh.proximity.
longest_ray
(mesh, points, directions)¶ Find the lengths of the longest rays which do not intersect the mesh cast from a list of points in the provided directions.
 Parameters
points ((n,3) float, list of points in space) –
directions ((n,3) float, directions of rays) –
 Returns
signed_distance
 Return type
(n,) float, length of rays

trimesh.proximity.
max_tangent_sphere
(mesh, points, inwards=True, normals=None, threshold=1e06, max_iter=100)¶ Find the center and radius of the sphere which is tangent to the mesh at the given point and at least one more point with no nontangential intersections with the mesh.
Masatomo Inui, Nobuyuki Umezu & Ryohei Shimane (2016) Shrinking sphere: A parallel algorithm for computing the thickness of 3D objects, ComputerAided Design and Applications, 13:2, 199207, DOI: 10.1080/16864360.2015.1084186
 Parameters
points ((n,3) float, list of points in space) –
inwards (bool, whether to have the sphere inside or outside the mesh) –
normals ((n,3) float, normals of the mesh at the given points) – None, compute this automatically.
 Returns
centers ((n,3) float, centers of spheres)
radii ((n,) float, radii of spheres)

trimesh.proximity.
nearby_faces
(mesh, points)¶ For each point find nearby faces relatively quickly.
The closest point on the mesh to the queried point is guaranteed to be on one of the faces listed.
Does this by finding the nearest vertex on the mesh to each point, and then returns all the faces that intersect the axis aligned bounding box centered at the queried point and extending to the nearest vertex.
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh object) –
points ((n,3) float , points in space) –
 Returns
candidates
 Return type
(points,) int, sequence of indexes for mesh.faces

trimesh.proximity.
signed_distance
(mesh, points)¶ Find the signed distance from a mesh to a list of points.
Points OUTSIDE the mesh will have NEGATIVE distance
Points within tol.merge of the surface will have POSITIVE distance
Points INSIDE the mesh will have POSITIVE distance
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh object) –
points ((n,3) float, list of points in space) –
 Returns
signed_distance
 Return type
(n,3) float, signed distance from point to mesh

trimesh.proximity.
thickness
(mesh, points, exterior=False, normals=None, method='max_sphere')¶ Find the thickness of the mesh at the given points.
 Parameters
points ((n,3) float, list of points in space) –
exterior (bool, whether to compute the exterior thickness) – (a.k.a. reach)
normals ((n,3) float, normals of the mesh at the given points) – None, compute this automatically.
method (string, one of 'max_sphere' or 'ray') –
 Returns
thickness
 Return type
(n,) float, thickness
trimesh.registration module¶
registration.py¶
Functions for registering (aligning) point clouds with meshes.

trimesh.registration.
icp
(a, b, initial=array([[1., 0., 0., 0.], [0., 1., 0., 0.], [0., 0., 1., 0.], [0., 0., 0., 1.]]), threshold=1e05, max_iterations=20, **kwargs)¶ Apply the iterative closest point algorithm to align a point cloud with another point cloud or mesh. Will only produce reasonable results if the initial transformation is roughly correct. Initial transformation can be found by applying Procrustes’ analysis to a suitable set of landmark points (often picked manually).
 Parameters
a ((n,3) float) – List of points in space.
b ((m,3) float or Trimesh) – List of points in space or mesh.
initial ((4,4) float) – Initial transformation.
threshold (float) – Stop when change in cost is less than threshold
max_iterations (int) – Maximum number of iterations
kwargs (dict) – Args to pass to procrustes
 Returns
matrix ((4,4) float) – The transformation matrix sending a to b
transformed ((n,3) float) – The image of a under the transformation
cost (float) – The cost of the transformation

trimesh.registration.
mesh_other
(mesh, other, samples=500, scale=False, icp_first=10, icp_final=50)¶ Align a mesh with another mesh or a PointCloud using the principal axes of inertia as a starting point which is refined by iterative closest point.
 Parameters
mesh (trimesh.Trimesh object) – Mesh to align with other
other (trimesh.Trimesh or (n, 3) float) – Mesh or points in space
samples (int) – Number of samples from mesh surface to align
scale (bool) – Allow scaling in transform
icp_first (int) – How many ICP iterations for the 9 possible combinations of sign flippage
icp_final (int) – How many ICP iterations for the closest candidate from the wider search
 Returns
mesh_to_other ((4, 4) float) – Transform to align mesh to the other object
cost (float) – Average squared distance per point

trimesh.registration.
procrustes
(a, b, reflection=True, translation=True, scale=True, return_cost=True)¶ Perform Procrustes’ analysis subject to constraints. Finds the transformation T mapping a to b which minimizes the square sum distances between Ta and b, also called the cost.
 Parameters
a ((n,3) float) – List of points in space
b ((n,3) float) – List of points in space
reflection (bool) – If the transformation is allowed reflections
translation (bool) – If the transformation is allowed translations
scale (bool) – If the transformation is allowed scaling
return_cost (bool) – Whether to return the cost and transformed a as well
 Returns
matrix ((4,4) float) – The transformation matrix sending a to b
transformed ((n,3) float) – The image of a under the transformation
cost (float) – The cost of the transformation
trimesh.remesh module¶
remesh.py¶
Deal with re triangulation of existing meshes.

trimesh.remesh.
subdivide
(vertices, faces, face_index=None)¶ Subdivide a mesh into smaller triangles.
Note that if face_index is passed, only those faces will be subdivided and their neighbors won’t be modified making the mesh no longer “watertight.”
 Parameters
vertices ((n, 3) float) – Vertices in space
faces ((n, 3) int) – Indexes of vertices which make up triangular faces
face_index (faces to subdivide.) – if None: all faces of mesh will be subdivided if (n,) int array of indices: only specified faces
 Returns
new_vertices ((n, 3) float) – Vertices in space
new_faces ((n, 3) int) – Remeshed faces

trimesh.remesh.
subdivide_to_size
(vertices, faces, max_edge, max_iter=10)¶ Subdivide a mesh until every edge is shorter than a specified length.
Will return a triangle soup, not a nicely structured mesh.
 Parameters
vertices ((n, 3) float) – Vertices in space
faces ((m, 3) int) – Indices of vertices which make up triangles
max_edge (float) – Maximum length of any edge in the result
max_iter (int) – The maximum number of times to run subdivision
 Returns
vertices ((j, 3) float) – Vertices in space
faces ((q, 3) int) – Indices of vertices
trimesh.rendering module¶
rendering.py¶
Functions to convert trimesh objects to pyglet/opengl objects.

trimesh.rendering.
colors_to_gl
(colors, count)¶ Given a list of colors (or None) return a GLacceptable list of colors
 Parameters
colors ((count, (3 or 4)) float) – Input colors as an array
 Returns
colors_type (str) – Color type
colors_gl ((count,) list) – Colors to pass to pyglet

trimesh.rendering.
convert_to_vertexlist
(geometry, **kwargs)¶ Try to convert various geometry objects to the constructor args for a pyglet indexed vertex list.

trimesh.rendering.
light_to_gl
(light, transform, lightN)¶ Convert trimesh.scene.lighting.Light objects into args for gl.glLightFv calls
 Parameters
light (trimesh.scene.lighting.Light) – Light object to be converted to GL
transform ((4, 4) float) – Transformation matrix of light
lightN (int) – Result of gl.GL_LIGHT0, gl.GL_LIGHT1, etc
 Returns
multiarg – List of args to pass to gl.glLightFv eg: [gl.glLightfb(*a) for a in multiarg]
 Return type
[tuple]

trimesh.rendering.
material_to_texture
(material, upsize=True)¶ Convert a trimesh.visual.texture.Material object into a pygletcompatible texture object.
 Parameters
material (trimesh.visual.texture.Material) – Material to be converted
upsize (bool) – If True, will upscale textures to their nearest power of two resolution to avoid weirdness
 Returns
texture – Texture loaded into pyglet form
 Return type
pyglet.image.Texture

trimesh.rendering.
matrix_to_gl
(matrix)¶ Convert a numpy rowmajor homogeneous transformation matrix to a flat columnmajor GLfloat transformation.
 Parameters
matrix ((4,4) float) – Rowmajor homogeneous transform
 Returns
glmatrix – Transform in pyglet format
 Return type
(16,) gl.GLfloat

trimesh.rendering.
mesh_to_vertexlist
(mesh, group=None, smooth=True, smooth_threshold=60000)¶ Convert a Trimesh object to arguments for an indexed vertex list constructor.
 Parameters
mesh (trimesh.Trimesh) – Mesh to be rendered
group (str) – Rendering group for the vertex list
smooth (bool) – Should we try to smooth shade the mesh
smooth_threshold (int) – Maximum number of faces to smooth shade
 Returns
args – Args for vertex list constructor
 Return type
(7,) tuple

trimesh.rendering.
path_to_vertexlist
(path, group=None, colors=None, **kwargs)¶ Convert a Path3D object to arguments for an indexed vertex list constructor.
 Parameters
path (trimesh.path.Path3D object) – Mesh to be rendered
group (str) – Rendering group for the vertex list
 Returns
args – Args for vertex list constructor
 Return type
(7,) tuple

trimesh.rendering.
points_to_vertexlist
(points, colors=None, group=None, **kwargs)¶ Convert a numpy array of 3D points to args for a vertex list constructor.
 Parameters
points ((n, 3) float) – Points to be rendered
colors ((n, 3) or (n, 4) float) – Colors for each point
group (str) – Rendering group for the vertex list
 Returns
args – Args for vertex list constructor
 Return type
(7,) tuple

trimesh.rendering.
vector_to_gl
(array, *args)¶ Convert an array and an optional set of args into a flat vector of gl.GLfloat
trimesh.repair module¶
repair.py¶
Fill holes and fix winding and normals of meshes.

trimesh.repair.
broken_faces
(mesh, color=None)¶ Return the index of faces in the mesh which break the watertight status of the mesh.
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh object) –
color ((4,) uint8, will set broken faces to this color) – None, will not alter mesh colors
 Returns
broken
 Return type
(n, ) int, indexes of mesh.faces

trimesh.repair.
fill_holes
(mesh)¶ Fill single triangle holes on triangular meshes by adding new triangles to fill the holes. New triangles will have proper winding and normals, and if face colors exist the color of the last face will be assigned to the new triangles.
 Parameters
mesh (trimesh.Trimesh) – Mesh will be repaired in place

trimesh.repair.
fix_inversion
(mesh, multibody=False)¶ Check to see if a mesh has normals pointing “out.”
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh object) –
multibody (bool, if True will try to fix normals on every body) –
Alters –
 –
mesh.face (may reverse faces) –

trimesh.repair.
fix_normals
(mesh, multibody=False)¶ Fix the winding and direction of a mesh face and face normals inplace.
Really only meaningful on watertight meshes, but will orient all faces and winding in a uniform way for nonwatertight face patches as well.
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh object) –
multibody (bool, if True try to correct normals direction) – on every body.
Alters –
 –
mesh.faces (will flip columns on inverted faces) –

trimesh.repair.
fix_winding
(mesh)¶ Traverse and change mesh faces inplace to make sure winding is correct, with edges on adjacent faces in opposite directions.
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh object) –
Alters –
 –
mesh.face (will reverse columns of certain faces) –
trimesh.sample module¶
sample.py¶
Randomly sample surface and volume of meshes.

trimesh.sample.
sample_surface
(mesh, count)¶ Sample the surface of a mesh, returning the specified number of points
For individual triangle sampling uses this method: http://mathworld.wolfram.com/TrianglePointPicking.html
 Parameters
mesh (trimesh.Trimesh) – Geometry to sample the surface of
count (int) – Number of points to return
 Returns
samples ((count, 3) float) – Points in space on the surface of mesh
face_index ((count,) int) – Indices of faces for each sampled point

trimesh.sample.
sample_surface_even
(mesh, count)¶ Sample the surface of a mesh, returning samples which are approximately evenly spaced. This is accomplished by sampling and then rejecting pairs that are too close together.
 Parameters
mesh (trimesh.Trimesh) – Geometry to sample the surface of
count (int) – Number of points to return
 Returns
samples ((count, 3) float) – Points in space on the surface of mesh
face_index ((count,) int) – Indices of faces for each sampled point

trimesh.sample.
sample_surface_sphere
(count)¶ Correctly pick random points on the surface of a unit sphere
Uses this method: http://mathworld.wolfram.com/SpherePointPicking.html
 Parameters
count (int) – Number of points to return
 Returns
points – Random points on the surface of a unit sphere
 Return type
(count, 3) float

trimesh.sample.
volume_mesh
(mesh, count)¶ Use rejection sampling to produce points randomly distributed in the volume of a mesh.
 Parameters
mesh (trimesh.Trimesh) – Geometry to sample
count (int) – Number of points to return
 Returns
samples – Points in the volume of the mesh where n <= count
 Return type
(n, 3) float

trimesh.sample.
volume_rectangular
(extents, count, transform=None)¶ Return random samples inside a rectangular volume, useful for sampling inside oriented bounding boxes.
 Parameters
extents ((3,) float) – Side lengths of rectangular solid
count (int) – Number of points to return
transform ((4, 4) float) – Homogeneous transformation matrix
 Returns
samples – Points in requested volume
 Return type
(count, 3) float
trimesh.smoothing module¶

trimesh.smoothing.
filter_humphrey
(mesh, alpha=0.1, beta=0.5, iterations=10, laplacian_operator=None)¶ Smooth a mesh inplace using laplacian smoothing and Humphrey filtering.
Articles “Improved Laplacian Smoothing of Noisy Surface Meshes” J. Vollmer, R. Mencl, and H. Muller
 Parameters
mesh (trimesh.Trimesh) – Mesh to be smoothed in place
alpha (float) – Controls shrinkage, range is 0.0  1.0 If 0.0, not considered If 1.0, no smoothing
beta (float) – Controls how aggressive smoothing is If 0.0, no smoothing If 1.0, full aggressiveness
iterations (int) – Number of passes to run filter
laplacian_operator (None or scipy.sparse.coo.coo_matrix) – Sparse matrix laplacian operator Will be autogenerated if None

trimesh.smoothing.
filter_laplacian
(mesh, lamb=0.5, iterations=10, implicit_time_integration=False, volume_constraint=True, laplacian_operator=None)¶ Smooth a mesh inplace using laplacian smoothing. Articles 1  “Improved Laplacian Smoothing of Noisy Surface Meshes”
Vollmer, R. Mencl, and H. Muller
 2  “Implicit Fairing of Irregular Meshes using Diffusion
and Curvature Flow”. M. Desbrun, M. Meyer, P. Schroder, A.H.B. Caltech
 Parameters
mesh (trimesh.Trimesh) –
to be smoothed in place (Mesh) –
lamb (float) –
speed constant (Diffusion) –
0.0, no diffusion (If) –
> 0.0, diffusion occurs (If) –
implicit_time_integration (boolean) –
False (if) – lamb <= 1.0  Stability Limit (Article 1)
True (if) – lamb no limit (Article 2)
iterations (int) –
of passes to run filter (Number) –
laplacian_operator (None or scipy.sparse.coo.coo_matrix) –
matrix laplacian operator (Sparse) –
be autogenerated if None (Will) –

trimesh.smoothing.
filter_taubin
(mesh, lamb=0.5, nu=0.5, iterations=10, laplacian_operator=None)¶ Smooth a mesh inplace using laplacian smoothing and taubin filtering.
Articles “Improved Laplacian Smoothing of Noisy Surface Meshes” J. Vollmer, R. Mencl, and H. Muller
 Parameters
mesh (trimesh.Trimesh) – Mesh to be smoothed in place.
lamb (float) – Controls shrinkage, range is 0.0  1.0
nu (float) – Controls dilation, range is 0.0  1.0 Nu shall be between 0.0 < 1.0/lambda  1.0/nu < 0.1
iterations (int) – Number of passes to run the filter
laplacian_operator (None or scipy.sparse.coo.coo_matrix) – Sparse matrix laplacian operator Will be autogenerated if None

trimesh.smoothing.
laplacian_calculation
(mesh, equal_weight=True)¶ Calculate a sparse matrix for laplacian operations.
 Parameters
mesh (trimesh.Trimesh) – Input geometry
equal_weight (bool) – If True, all neighbors will be considered equally If False, all neightbors will be weighted by inverse distance
 Returns
laplacian – Laplacian operator
 Return type
scipy.sparse.coo.coo_matrix
trimesh.transformations module¶
Homogeneous Transformation Matrices and Quaternions.
A library for calculating 4x4 matrices for translating, rotating, reflecting, scaling, shearing, projecting, orthogonalizing, and superimposing arrays of 3D homogeneous coordinates as well as for converting between rotation matrices, Euler angles, and quaternions. Also includes an Arcball control object and functions to decompose transformation matrices.
 Author
 Organization
Laboratory for Fluorescence Dynamics, University of California, Irvine
 Version
2017.02.17
Requirements¶
Transformations.c 2015.03.19 (recommended for speedup of some functions)
Notes
The API is not stable yet and is expected to change between revisions.
This Python code is not optimized for speed. Refer to the transformations.c module for a faster implementation of some functions.
Documentation in HTML format can be generated with epydoc.
Matrices (M) can be inverted using np.linalg.inv(M), be concatenated using np.dot(M0, M1), or transform homogeneous coordinate arrays (v) using np.dot(M, v) for shape (4, ) column vectors, respectively np.dot(v, M.T) for shape (, 4) row vectors (“array of points”).
This module follows the “column vectors on the right” and “row major storage” (C contiguous) conventions. The translation components are in the right column of the transformation matrix, i.e. M[:3, 3]. The transpose of the transformation matrices may have to be used to interface with other graphics systems, e.g. with OpenGL’s glMultMatrixd(). See also [16].
Calculations are carried out with np.float64 precision.
Vector, point, quaternion, and matrix function arguments are expected to be “array like”, i.e. tuple, list, or numpy arrays.
Return types are numpy arrays unless specified otherwise.
Angles are in radians unless specified otherwise.
Quaternions w+ix+jy+kz are represented as [w, x, y, z].
A triple of Euler angles can be applied/interpreted in 24 ways, which can be specified using a 4 character string or encoded 4tuple:
Axes 4string: e.g. ‘sxyz’ or ‘ryxy’
first character : rotations are applied to ‘s’tatic or ‘r’otating frame
remaining characters : successive rotation axis ‘x’, ‘y’, or ‘z’
Axes 4tuple: e.g. (0, 0, 0, 0) or (1, 1, 1, 1)
inner axis: code of axis (‘x’:0, ‘y’:1, ‘z’:2) of rightmost matrix.
parity : even (0) if inner axis ‘x’ is followed by ‘y’, ‘y’ is followed by ‘z’, or ‘z’ is followed by ‘x’. Otherwise odd (1).
repetition : first and last axis are same (1) or different (0).
frame : rotations are applied to static (0) or rotating (1) frame.
Other Python packages and modules for 3D transformations and quaternions:
 Transforms3d
includes most code of this module.
References
Matrices and transformations. Ronald Goldman. In “Graphics Gems I”, pp 472475. Morgan Kaufmann, 1990.
More matrices and transformations: shear and pseudoperspective. Ronald Goldman. In “Graphics Gems II”, pp 320323. Morgan Kaufmann, 1991.
Decomposing a matrix into simple transformations. Spencer Thomas. In “Graphics Gems II”, pp 320323. Morgan Kaufmann, 1991.
Recovering the data from the transformation matrix. Ronald Goldman. In “Graphics Gems II”, pp 324331. Morgan Kaufmann, 1991.
Euler angle conversion. Ken Shoemake. In “Graphics Gems IV”, pp 222229. Morgan Kaufmann, 1994.
Arcball rotation control. Ken Shoemake. In “Graphics Gems IV”, pp 175192. Morgan Kaufmann, 1994.
Representing attitude: Euler angles, unit quaternions, and rotation vectors. James Diebel. 2006.
A discussion of the solution for the best rotation to relate two sets of vectors. W Kabsch. Acta Cryst. 1978. A34, 827828.
Closedform solution of absolute orientation using unit quaternions. BKP Horn. J Opt Soc Am A. 1987. 4(4):629642.
Quaternions. Ken Shoemake. http://www.sfu.ca/~jwa3/cmpt461/files/quatut.pdf
From quaternion to matrix and back. JMP van Waveren. 2005. http://www.intel.com/cd/ids/developer/asmona/eng/293748.htm
Uniform random rotations. Ken Shoemake. In “Graphics Gems III”, pp 124132. Morgan Kaufmann, 1992.
Quaternion in molecular modeling. CFF Karney. J Mol Graph Mod, 25(5):595604
New method for extracting the quaternion from a rotation matrix. Itzhack Y BarItzhack, J Guid Contr Dynam. 2000. 23(6): 10851087.
Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision. Hartley and Zissermann. Cambridge University Press; 2nd Ed. 2004. Chapter 4, Algorithm 4.7, p 130.
Column Vectors vs. Row Vectors. http://steve.hollasch.net/cgindex/math/matrix/columnvec.html
Examples
>>> alpha, beta, gamma = 0.123, 1.234, 2.345
>>> origin, xaxis, yaxis, zaxis = [0, 0, 0], [1, 0, 0], [0, 1, 0], [0, 0, 1]
>>> I = identity_matrix()
>>> Rx = rotation_matrix(alpha, xaxis)
>>> Ry = rotation_matrix(beta, yaxis)
>>> Rz = rotation_matrix(gamma, zaxis)
>>> R = concatenate_matrices(Rx, Ry, Rz)
>>> euler = euler_from_matrix(R, 'rxyz')
>>> np.allclose([alpha, beta, gamma], euler)
True
>>> Re = euler_matrix(alpha, beta, gamma, 'rxyz')
>>> is_same_transform(R, Re)
True
>>> al, be, ga = euler_from_matrix(Re, 'rxyz')
>>> is_same_transform(Re, euler_matrix(al, be, ga, 'rxyz'))
True
>>> qx = quaternion_about_axis(alpha, xaxis)
>>> qy = quaternion_about_axis(beta, yaxis)
>>> qz = quaternion_about_axis(gamma, zaxis)
>>> q = quaternion_multiply(qx, qy)
>>> q = quaternion_multiply(q, qz)
>>> Rq = quaternion_matrix(q)
>>> is_same_transform(R, Rq)
True
>>> S = scale_matrix(1.23, origin)
>>> T = translation_matrix([1, 2, 3])
>>> Z = shear_matrix(beta, xaxis, origin, zaxis)
>>> R = random_rotation_matrix(np.random.rand(3))
>>> M = concatenate_matrices(T, R, Z, S)
>>> scale, shear, angles, trans, persp = decompose_matrix(M)
>>> np.allclose(scale, 1.23)
True
>>> np.allclose(trans, [1, 2, 3])
True
>>> np.allclose(shear, [0, math.tan(beta), 0])
True
>>> is_same_transform(R, euler_matrix(axes='sxyz', *angles))
True
>>> M1 = compose_matrix(scale, shear, angles, trans, persp)
>>> is_same_transform(M, M1)
True
>>> v0, v1 = random_vector(3), random_vector(3)
>>> M = rotation_matrix(angle_between_vectors(v0, v1), vector_product(v0, v1))
>>> v2 = np.dot(v0, M[:3,:3].T)
>>> np.allclose(unit_vector(v1), unit_vector(v2))
True
trimesh.triangles module¶
triangles.py¶
Functions for dealing with triangle soups in (n, 3, 3) float form.

trimesh.triangles.
all_coplanar
(triangles)¶ Check to see if a list of triangles are all coplanar
 Parameters
triangles ((n, 3, 3) float) – Vertices of triangles
 Returns
all_coplanar – True if all triangles are coplanar
 Return type
bool

trimesh.triangles.
angles
(triangles)¶ Calculates the angles of input triangles.
 Parameters
triangles ((n, 3, 3) float) – Vertex positions
 Returns
angles – Angles at vertex positions in radians Degenerate angles will be returned as zero
 Return type
(n, 3) float

trimesh.triangles.
any_coplanar
(triangles)¶ For a list of triangles if the FIRST triangle is coplanar with ANY of the following triangles, return True. Otherwise, return False.

trimesh.triangles.
area
(triangles=None, crosses=None, sum=False)¶ Calculates the sum area of input triangles
 Parameters
triangles ((n, 3, 3) float) – Vertices of triangles
crosses ((n, 3) float or None) – As a speedup don’t re compute cross products
sum (bool) – Return summed area or individual triangle area
 Returns
area – Individual or summed area depending on sum argument
 Return type
(n,) float or float

trimesh.triangles.
barycentric_to_points
(triangles, barycentric)¶ Convert a list of barycentric coordinates on a list of triangles to cartesian points.
 Parameters
triangles ((n, 3, 3) float) – Triangles in space
barycentric ((n, 2) float) – Barycentric coordinates
 Returns
points – Points in space
 Return type
(m, 3) float

trimesh.triangles.
bounds_tree
(triangles)¶ Given a list of triangles, create an rtree for broad phase collision detection
 Parameters
triangles ((n, 3, 3) float) – Triangles in space
 Returns
tree – One node per triangle
 Return type
rtree.Rtree

trimesh.triangles.
closest_point
(triangles, points)¶ Return the closest point on the surface of each triangle for a list of corresponding points.
Implements the method from “Real Time Collision Detection” and use the same variable names as “ClosestPtPointTriangle” to avoid being any more confusing.
 Parameters
triangles ((n, 3, 3) float) – Triangle vertices in space
points ((n, 3) float) – Points in space
 Returns
closest – Point on each triangle closest to each point
 Return type
(n, 3) float

trimesh.triangles.
cross
(triangles)¶ Returns the cross product of two edges from input triangles
 Parameters
triangles ((n, 3, 3) float) – Vertices of triangles
 Returns
crosses – Cross product of two edge vectors
 Return type
(n, 3) float

trimesh.triangles.
extents
(triangles, areas=None)¶ Return the 2D bounding box size of each triangle.
 Parameters
triangles ((n, 3, 3) float) – Triangles in space
areas ((n,) float) – Optional area of input triangles
 Returns
box – The size of each triangle’s 2D oriented bounding box
 Return type
(n, 2) float

trimesh.triangles.
mass_properties
(triangles, crosses=None, density=1.0, center_mass=None, skip_inertia=False)¶ Calculate the mass properties of a group of triangles.
Implemented from: http://www.geometrictools.com/Documentation/PolyhedralMassProperties.pdf
 Parameters
triangles ((n, 3, 3) float) – Triangle vertices in space
crosses ((n,) float) – Optional cross products of triangles
density (float) – Optional override for density
center_mass ((3,) float) – Optional override for center mass
skip_inertia (bool) – if True will not return moments matrix
 Returns
info – Mass properties
 Return type
dict

trimesh.triangles.
nondegenerate
(triangles, areas=None, height=None)¶ Find all triangles which have an oriented bounding box where both of the two sides is larger than a specified height.
Degenerate triangles can be when: 1) Two of the three vertices are colocated 2) All three vertices are unique but colinear
 Parameters
triangles ((n, 3, 3) float) – Triangles in space
height (float) – Minimum edge length of a triangle to keep
 Returns
nondegenerate – True if a triangle meets required minimum height
 Return type
(n,) bool

trimesh.triangles.
normals
(triangles=None, crosses=None)¶ Calculates the normals of input triangles
 Parameters
triangles ((n, 3, 3) float) – Vertex positions
crosses ((n, 3) float) – Cross products of edge vectors
 Returns
normals ((m, 3) float) – Normal vectors
valid ((n,) bool) – Was the face nonzero area or not

trimesh.triangles.
points_to_barycentric
(triangles, points, method='cramer')¶ Find the barycentric coordinates of points relative to triangles.
 The Cramer’s rule solution implements:
 The cross product solution implements:
 Parameters
triangles ((n, 3, 3) float) – Triangles vertices in space
points ((n, 3) float) – Point in space associated with a triangle
method (str) –
 Which method to compute the barycentric coordinates with:
 ’cross’: uses a method using cross products, roughly 2x slower but
different numerical robustness properties
anything else: uses a cramer’s rule solution
 Returns
barycentric – Barycentric coordinates of each point
 Return type
(n, 3) float

trimesh.triangles.
to_kwargs
(triangles)¶ Convert a list of triangles to the kwargs for the Trimesh constructor.
 Parameters
triangles ((n, 3, 3) float) – Triangles in space
 Returns
kwargs – Keyword arguments for the trimesh.Trimesh constructor Includes keys ‘vertices’ and ‘faces’
 Return type
dict
Examples
>>> mesh = trimesh.Trimesh(**trimesh.triangles.to_kwargs(triangles))

trimesh.triangles.
windings_aligned
(triangles, normals_compare)¶ Given a list of triangles and a list of normals determine if the two are aligned
 Parameters
triangles ((n, 3, 3) float) – Vertex locations in space
normals_compare ((n, 3) float) – List of normals to compare
 Returns
aligned – Are normals aligned with triangles
 Return type
(n,) bool
trimesh.units module¶
units.py¶
Deal with physical unit systems (i.e. inches, mm)
Very basic conversions, and no requirement for sympy.physics.units or pint.

trimesh.units.
unit_conversion
(current, desired)¶ Calculate the conversion from one set of units to another.
 Parameters
current (str) – Unit system values are in now (eg ‘millimeters’)
desired (str) – Unit system we’d like values in (eg ‘inches’)
 Returns
conversion – Number to multiply by to put values into desired units
 Return type
float

trimesh.units.
units_from_metadata
(obj, guess=True)¶ Try to extract hints from metadata and if that fails guess based on the object scale.
 Parameters
obj (object) – Has attributes ‘metadata’ (dict) and ‘scale’ (float)
guess (bool) – If metadata doesn’t indicate units, guess from scale
 Returns
units – A guess of what the units might be
 Return type
str
trimesh.util module¶
util.py¶
Standalone functions which require only imports from numpy and the standard library.
Other libraries may be imported must be wrapped in try/except blocks or imported inside of a function

class
trimesh.util.
FunctionRegistry
(**kwargs)¶ Bases:
collections.abc.Mapping
Nonoverwritable mapping of string keys to functions.
This allows external packages to register additional implementations of common functionality without risk of breaking implementations provided by trimesh.
See trimesh.voxel.morphology for example usage.

class
trimesh.util.
TemporaryDirectory
¶ Bases:
object
Same basic usage as tempfile.TemporaryDirectory but functional in Python 2.7+

trimesh.util.
allclose
(a, b, atol)¶ A replacement for np.allclose that does few checks and validation and as a result is faster.
Note that this is used in tight loops, and as such
a and b MUST be np.ndarray, not list or “arraylike”
 Parameters
a (np.ndarray) – To be compared
b (np.ndarray) – To be compared
atol (float) – Acceptable distance between a and b to be “close”
 Returns
 Return type
bool indicating if all elements are within atol.

trimesh.util.
append_faces
(vertices_seq, faces_seq)¶ Given a sequence of zero indexed faces and vertices combine them into a single array of faces and a single array of vertices.
 Parameters
vertices_seq ((n, ) sequence of (m, d) float) – Multiple arrays of verticesvertex arrays
faces_seq ((n, ) sequence of (p, j) int) – Zero indexed faces for matching vertices
 Returns
vertices ((i, d) float) – Points in space
faces ((j, 3) int) – Reference vertex indices

trimesh.util.
array_to_encoded
(array, dtype=None, encoding='base64')¶ Export a numpy array to a compact serializable dictionary.
 Parameters
array (array) – Any numpy array
dtype (str or None) – Optional dtype to encode array
encoding (str) – ‘base64’ or ‘binary’
 Returns
encoded – Has keys: ‘dtype’: str, of dtype ‘shape’: tuple of shape ‘base64’: str, base64 encoded string
 Return type
dict

trimesh.util.
array_to_string
(array, col_delim=' ', row_delim='\n', digits=8, value_format='{}')¶ Convert a 1 or 2D array into a string with a specified number of digits and delimiter. The reason this exists is that the basic numpy array to string conversions are surprisingly bad.
 Parameters
array ((n,) or (n, d) float or int) – Data to be converted If shape is (n,) only column delimiter will be used
col_delim (str) – What string should separate values in a column
row_delim (str) – What string should separate values in a row
digits (int) – How many digits should floating point numbers include
value_format (str) – Format string for each value or sequence of values If multiple values per value_format it must divide into array evenly.
 Returns
formatted – String representation of original array
 Return type
str

trimesh.util.
attach_to_log
(level=10, handler=None, loggers=None, colors=True, capture_warnings=True, blacklist=None)¶ Attach a stream handler to all loggers.
 Parameters
level (logging level) –
handler (log handler object) –
loggers (list of loggers to attach to) – if None, will try to attach to all available
colors (bool, if True try to use colorlog formatter) –
blacklist (list of str, names of loggers NOT to attach to) –

trimesh.util.
bounds_tree
(bounds)¶ Given a set of axis aligned bounds, create an rtree for broad phase collision detection
 Parameters
bounds ((n, dimension*2) list of non interleaved bounds) – for a 2D bounds tree: [(minx, miny, maxx, maxy), …]
 Returns
tree
 Return type
Rtree object

trimesh.util.
compress
(info)¶ Compress data stored in a dict.
 Parameters
info (dict) – Data to compress in form: {file name in archive: bytes or filelike object}
 Returns
compressed – Compressed file data
 Return type
bytes

trimesh.util.
concatenate
(a, b=None)¶ Concatenate two or more meshes.
 Parameters
a (Trimesh object, or list of such) –
b (Trimesh object, or list of such) –
 Returns
result
 Return type
Trimesh object containing concatenated mesh

trimesh.util.
convert_like
(item, like)¶ Convert an item to have the dtype of another item
 Parameters
item (item to be converted) –
like (object with target dtype. If None, item is returned unmodified) –
 Returns
result
 Return type
item, but in dtype of like

trimesh.util.
decimal_to_digits
(decimal, min_digits=None)¶ Return the number of digits to the first nonzero decimal.
 Parameters
decimal (float) –
min_digits (int, minimum number of digits to return) –
 Returns
digits
 Return type
int, number of digits to the first nonzero decimal

trimesh.util.
decode_keys
(store, encoding='utf8')¶ If a dictionary has keys that are bytes decode them to a str.
 Parameters
store (dict) – Dictionary with data
 Returns
result – Values are untouched but keys that were bytes are converted to ASCII strings.
 Return type
dict
Example
In [1]: d Out[1]: {1020: ‘nah’, b’hi’: ‘stuff’}
In [2]: trimesh.util.decode_keys(d) Out[2]: {1020: ‘nah’, ‘hi’: ‘stuff’}

trimesh.util.
decode_text
(text)¶ Try to decode byte input as a string.
Initially guesses that text is UTF8, and then if that fails it tries to detect the encoding and try once more.
 Parameters
text (bytes) – Data that might be strings
 Returns
decoded – Data as a string
 Return type
str

trimesh.util.
decompress
(file_obj, file_type)¶ Given an open file object and a file type, return all components of the archive as open file objects in a dict.
 Parameters
file_obj (filelike) – Containing compressed data
file_type (str) – File extension, ‘zip’, ‘tar.gz’, etc
 Returns
decompressed – Data from archive in format {file name : filelike}
 Return type
dict

trimesh.util.
diagonal_dot
(a, b)¶ Dot product by row of a and b.
There are a lot of ways to do this though performance varies very widely. This method uses the dot product to sum the row and avoids function calls if at all possible.
Comparing performance of some equivalent versions: ``` In [1]: import numpy as np; import trimesh
In [2]: a = np.random.random((10000, 3))
In [3]: b = np.random.random((10000, 3))
In [4]: %timeit (a * b).sum(axis=1) 1000 loops, best of 3: 181 us per loop
In [5]: %timeit np.einsum(‘ij,ij>i’, a, b) 10000 loops, best of 3: 62.7 us per loop
In [6]: %timeit np.diag(np.dot(a, b.T)) 1 loop, best of 3: 429 ms per loop
In [7]: %timeit np.dot(a * b, np.ones(a.shape[1])) 10000 loops, best of 3: 61.3 us per loop
In [8]: %timeit trimesh.util.diagonal_dot(a, b) 10000 loops, best of 3: 55.2 us per loop ```
 Parameters
a ((m, d) float) – First array
b ((m, d) float) – Second array
 Returns
result – Dot product of each row
 Return type
(m,) float

trimesh.util.
distance_to_end
(file_obj)¶ For an open file object how far is it to the end
 Parameters
file_obj (open file like object) –
 Returns
distance
 Return type
int, bytes to end of file

trimesh.util.
encoded_to_array
(encoded)¶ Turn a dictionary with base64 encoded strings back into a numpy array.
 Parameters
encoded (dict) –
 Has keys:
dtype: string of dtype shape: int tuple of shape base64: base64 encoded string of flat array binary: decode result coming from numpy.tostring
 Returns
array
 Return type
numpy array

trimesh.util.
euclidean
(a, b)¶ Euclidean distance between vectors a and b.
 Parameters
a ((n,) float) – First vector
b ((n,) float) – Second vector
 Returns
distance – Euclidean distance between A and B
 Return type
float

trimesh.util.
generate_basis
(z)¶ Generate an arbitrary basis (also known as a coordinate frame) from a given zaxis vector.
 Parameters
z ((3,) float) – A vector along the positive zaxis
 Returns
x ((3,) float) – Vector along x axis
y ((3,) float) – Vector along y axis
z ((3,) float) – Vector along z axis

trimesh.util.
grid_arange
(bounds, step)¶ Return a grid from an (2,dimension) bounds with samples step distance apart.
 Parameters
bounds ((2,dimension) list of [[min x, min y, etc], [max x, max y, etc]]) –
step (float, or (dimension) floats, separation between points) –
 Returns
grid
 Return type
(n, dimension), points inside the specified bounds

trimesh.util.
grid_linspace
(bounds, count)¶ Return a grid spaced inside a bounding box with edges spaced using np.linspace.
 Parameters
bounds ((2,dimension) list of [[min x, min y, etc], [max x, max y, etc]]) –
count (int, or (dimension,) int, number of samples per side) –
 Returns
grid
 Return type
(n, dimension) float, points in the specified bounds

trimesh.util.
hash_file
(file_obj, hash_function=<builtin function openssl_md5>)¶ Get the hash of an open file like object.
 Parameters
file_obj (file like object) –
hash_function (function to use to hash data) –
 Returns
hashed
 Return type
str, hex version of result

trimesh.util.
is_binary_file
(file_obj)¶ Returns True if file has nonASCII characters (> 0x7F, or 127) Should work in both Python 2 and 3

trimesh.util.
is_file
(obj)¶ Check if an object is file like
 Parameters
obj (object) – Any object type to be checked
 Returns
is_file – True if object is a file
 Return type
bool

trimesh.util.
is_instance_named
(obj, name)¶ Given an object, if it is a member of the class ‘name’, or a subclass of ‘name’, return True.
 Parameters
obj (instance) – Some object of some class
name (str) – The name of the class we want to check for
 Returns
is_instance – Whether the object is a member of the named class
 Return type
bool

trimesh.util.
is_none
(obj)¶ Check to see if an object is None or not.
Handles the case of np.array(None) as well.
 Parameters
obj (object) – Any object type to be checked
 Returns
is_none – True if obj is None or numpy Nonelike
 Return type
bool

trimesh.util.
is_sequence
(obj)¶ Check if an object is a sequence or not.
 Parameters
obj (object) – Any object type to be checked
 Returns
is_sequence – True if object is sequence
 Return type
bool

trimesh.util.
is_shape
(obj, shape, allow_zeros=False)¶ Compare the shape of a numpy.ndarray to a target shape, with any value less than zero being considered a wildcard
Note that if a list like object is passed that is not a numpy array, this function will not convert it and will return False.
 Parameters
obj (np.ndarray) – Array to check the shape on
shape (list or tuple) – Any negative term will be considered a wildcard Any tuple term will be evaluated as an OR
allow_zeros (bool) – if False, zeros do not math negatives in shape.
 Returns
shape_ok
 Return type
bool, True if shape of obj matches query shape
Examples
In [1]: a = np.random.random((100, 3))
In [2]: a.shape Out[2]: (100, 3)
In [3]: trimesh.util.is_shape(a, (1, 3)) Out[3]: True
In [4]: trimesh.util.is_shape(a, (1, 3, 5)) Out[4]: False
In [5]: trimesh.util.is_shape(a, (100, 1)) Out[5]: True
In [6]: trimesh.util.is_shape(a, (1, (3, 4))) Out[6]: True
In [7]: trimesh.util.is_shape(a, (1, (4, 5))) Out[7]: False

trimesh.util.
is_string
(obj)¶ Check if an object is a string.
 Parameters
obj (object) – Any object type to be checked
 Returns
is_string – True if obj is a string
 Return type
bool

trimesh.util.
isclose
(a, b, atol)¶ A replacement for np.isclose that does fewer checks and validation and as a result is roughly 4x faster.
Note that this is used in tight loops, and as such a and b MUST be np.ndarray, not list or “arraylike”
 Parameters
a (np.ndarray) – To be compared
b (np.ndarray) – To be compared
atol (float) – Acceptable distance between a and b to be “close”
 Returns
close – Per element closeness
 Return type
np.ndarray, bool

trimesh.util.
jsonify
(obj, **kwargs)¶ A version of json.dumps that can handle numpy arrays by creating a custom encoder for numpy dtypes.
 Parameters
obj (JSON serializable blob) –
**kwargs – Passed to json.dumps
 Returns
dumped – JSON dump of obj
 Return type
str

trimesh.util.
make_sequence
(obj)¶ Given an object, if it is a sequence return, otherwise add it to a length 1 sequence and return.
Useful for wrapping functions which sometimes return single objects and other times return lists of objects.
 Parameters
obj (object) – An object to be made a sequence
 Returns
as_sequence – Contains input value
 Return type
(n,) sequence

trimesh.util.
md5_object
(obj)¶ If an object is hashable, return the string of the MD5.
 Parameters
obj (object) –
 Returns
md5
 Return type
str, MD5 hash

trimesh.util.
multi_dict
(pairs)¶ Given a set of key value pairs, create a dictionary. If a key occurs multiple times, stack the values into an array.
Can be called like the regular dict(pairs) constructor
 Parameters
pairs ((n,2) array of key, value pairs) –
 Returns
result
 Return type
dict, with all values stored (rather than last with regular dict)

trimesh.util.
pairwise
(iterable)¶ For an iterable, group values into pairs.
 Parameters
iterable ((m, ) list) – A sequence of values
 Returns
pairs – Pairs of sequential values
 Return type
(n, 2)
Example
In [1]: data Out[1]: [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]
In [2]: list(trimesh.util.pairwise(data)) Out[2]: [(0, 1), (1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 4), (4, 5), (5, 6)]

trimesh.util.
row_norm
(data)¶ Compute the norm per row of a numpy array.
This is identical to np.linalg.norm(data, axis=1) but roughly three times faster due to being less general.
In [3]: %timeit trimesh.util.row_norm(a) 76.3 us +/ 651 ns per loop
In [4]: %timeit np.linalg.norm(a, axis=1) 220 us +/ 5.41 us per loop
 Parameters
data ((n, d) float) – Input 2D data to calculate per row norm of
 Returns
norm – Norm of each row of input array
 Return type
(n,) float

trimesh.util.
sigfig_int
(values, sigfig)¶ Convert a set of floating point values into integers with a specified number of significant figures and an exponent.
 Parameters
values ((n,) float or int, array of values) –
sigfig ((n,) int, number of significant figures to keep) –
 Returns
as_int ((n,) int, every value[i] has sigfig[i] digits)
multiplier ((n, int), exponent, so as_int * 10 * multiplier is*) – the same order of magnitude as the input

trimesh.util.
sigfig_round
(values, sigfig=1)¶ Round a single value to a specified number of significant figures.
 Parameters
values (float, value to be rounded) –
sigfig (int, number of significant figures to reduce to) –
 Returns
rounded
 Return type
values, but rounded to the specified number of significant figures
Examples
In [1]: trimesh.util.round_sigfig(232453.00014045456, 1) Out[1]: 200000.0
In [2]: trimesh.util.round_sigfig(.00014045456, 1) Out[2]: 0.0001
In [3]: trimesh.util.round_sigfig(.00014045456, 4) Out[3]: 0.0001405

trimesh.util.
spherical_to_vector
(spherical)¶ Convert a set of (n,2) spherical vectors to (n,3) vectors
 Parameters
spherical ((n , 2) float) – Angles, in radians
 Returns
vectors – Unit vectors
 Return type
(n, 3) float

trimesh.util.
split_extension
(file_name, special=['tar.bz2', 'tar.gz'])¶ Find the file extension of a file name, including support for special case multipart file extensions (like .tar.gz)
 Parameters
file_name (str, file name) –
special (list of str, multipart extensions) – eg: [‘tar.bz2’, ‘tar.gz’]
 Returns
extension – a value from ‘special’
 Return type
str, last characters after a period, or

trimesh.util.
stack_3D
(points, return_2D=False)¶ For a list of (n, 2) or (n, 3) points return them as (n, 3) 3D points, 2D points on the XY plane.
 Parameters
points ((n, 2) or (n, 3) float) – Points in either 2D or 3D space
return_2D (bool) – Were the original points 2D?
 Returns
points ((n, 3) float) – Points in space
is_2D (bool) – Only returned if return_2D If source points were (n, 2) True

trimesh.util.
stack_lines
(indices)¶ Stack a list of values that represent a polyline into individual line segments with duplicated consecutive values.
 Parameters
indices (sequence of items) –
 Returns
stacked ((n,2) set of items)
In [1] (trimesh.util.stack_lines([0,1,2]))
Out[1]
array([[0, 1], – [1, 2]])
In [2] (trimesh.util.stack_lines([0,1,2,4,5]))
Out[2]
array([[0, 1], – [1, 2], [2, 4], [4, 5]])
In [3] (trimesh.util.stack_lines([[0,0],[1,1],[2,2], [3,3]]))
Out[3]
array([[0, 0], – [1, 1], [1, 1], [2, 2], [2, 2], [3, 3]])

trimesh.util.
submesh
(mesh, faces_sequence, only_watertight=False, append=False)¶ Return a subset of a mesh.
 Parameters
mesh (Trimesh) – Source mesh to take geometry from
faces_sequence (sequence (p,) int) – Indexes of mesh.faces
only_watertight (bool) – Only return submeshes which are watertight.
append (bool) – Return a single mesh which has the faces appended, if this flag is set, only_watertight is ignored
 Returns
if append (Trimesh object)
else list of Trimesh objects

trimesh.util.
tolist
(data)¶ Ensure that any arrays or dicts passed containing numpy arrays are properly converted to lists
 Parameters
data (any) – Usually a dict with some numpy arrays as values
 Returns
result – JSON serializable version of data
 Return type
any

trimesh.util.
triangle_strips_to_faces
(strips)¶ Given a sequence of triangle strips, convert them to (n,3) faces.
Processes all strips at once using np.concatenate and is significantly faster than loop based methods.
From the OpenGL programming guide describing a single triangle strip [v0, v1, v2, v3, v4]:
Draws a series of triangles (threesided polygons) using vertices v0, v1, v2, then v2, v1, v3 (note the order), then v2, v3, v4, and so on. The ordering is to ensure that the triangles are all drawn with the same orientation so that the strip can correctly form part of a surface.
 Parameters
strips ((n,) list of (m,) int vertex indices) –
 Returns
faces
 Return type
(m,3) int, vertex indices representing triangles

trimesh.util.
type_bases
(obj, depth=4)¶ Return the bases of the object passed.

trimesh.util.
type_named
(obj, name)¶ Similar to the type() builtin, but looks in class bases for named instance.
 Parameters
obj (object to look for class of) –
name (str, name of class) –
 Returns
 Return type
named class, or None

trimesh.util.
unique_id
(length=12, increment=0)¶ Generate a decent looking alphanumeric unique identifier. First 16 bits are time incrementing, followed by randomness.
This function is used as a nicer looking alternative to: >>> uuid.uuid4().hex
Follows the advice in: https://eager.io/blog/howlongdoesanidneedtobe/
 Parameters
length (int, length of resulting identifier) –
increment (int, number to add to header uint16) – useful if calling this function repeatedly in a tight loop executing faster than time can increment the header
 Returns
unique
 Return type
str, unique alphanumeric identifier

trimesh.util.
unitize
(vectors, check_valid=False, threshold=None)¶ Unitize a vector or an array or row vectors.
 Parameters
vectors ((n,m) or (j) float) – Vector or vectors to be unitized
check_valid (bool) – If set, will return mask of nonzero vectors
threshold (float) – Cutoff for a value to be considered zero.
 Returns
unit ((n,m) or (j) float) – Input vectors but unitized
valid ((n,) bool or bool) – Mask of nonzero vectors returned if check_valid

trimesh.util.
vector_hemisphere
(vectors, return_sign=False)¶ For a set of 3D vectors alter the sign so they are all in the upper hemisphere.
If the vector lies on the plane all vectors with negative Y will be reversed.
If the vector has a zero Z and Y value vectors with a negative X value will be reversed.
 Parameters
vectors ((n,3) float) – Input vectors
return_sign (bool) – Return the sign mask or not
 Returns
oriented ((n, 3) float) – Vectors with same magnitude as source but possibly reversed to ensure all vectors are in the same hemisphere.
sign ((n,) float)

trimesh.util.
vector_to_spherical
(cartesian)¶ Convert a set of cartesian points to (n,2) spherical unit vectors.
 Parameters
cartesian ((n, 3) float) – Points in space
 Returns
spherical – Angles, in radians
 Return type
(n, 2) float

trimesh.util.
vstack_empty
(tup)¶ A thin wrapper for numpy.vstack that ignores empty lists.
 Parameters
tup (tuple or list of arrays with the same number of columns) –
 Returns
stacked – constituent arrays.
 Return type
(n,d) array, with same number of columns as

trimesh.util.
wrap_as_stream
(item)¶ Wrap a string or bytes object as a file object.
 Parameters
item (str or bytes) – Item to be wrapped
 Returns
wrapped
 Return type
filelike object

trimesh.util.
write_encoded
(file_obj, stuff, encoding='utf8')¶ If a file is open in binary mode and a string is passed, encode and write If a file is open in text mode and bytes are passed, decode and write
 Parameters
file_obj (file object, with 'write' and 'mode') –
stuff (str or bytes, stuff to be written) –
encoding (str, encoding of text) –

trimesh.util.
zero_pad
(data, count, right=True)¶  Parameters
data ((n,)) – 1D array
count (int) – Minimum length of result array
 Returns
padded – 1D array where m >= count
 Return type
(m,)
trimesh.version module¶
Module contents¶
https://github.com/mikedh/trimesh¶
Trimesh is a pure Python (2.7 3.3+) library for loading and using triangular meshes with an emphasis on watertight meshes. The goal of the library is to provide a fully featured Trimesh object which allows for easy manipulation and analysis, in the style of the Polygon object in the Shapely library.

class
trimesh.
Trimesh
(vertices=None, faces=None, face_normals=None, vertex_normals=None, face_colors=None, vertex_colors=None, face_attributes=None, vertex_attributes=None, metadata=None, process=True, validate=False, use_embree=True, initial_cache=None, visual=None, **kwargs)¶ Bases:
trimesh.parent.Geometry

apply_obb
()¶ Apply the oriented bounding box transform to the current mesh.
This will result in a mesh with an AABB centered at the origin and the same dimensions as the OBB.
 Returns
matrix – Transformation matrix that was applied to mesh to move it into OBB frame
 Return type
(4, 4) float

apply_transform
(matrix)¶ Transform mesh by a homogeneous transformation matrix.
Does the bookkeeping to avoid recomputing things so this function should be used rather than directly modifying self.vertices if possible.
 Parameters
matrix ((4, 4) float) – Homogeneous transformation matrix

property
area
¶ Summed area of all triangles in the current mesh.
 Returns
area – Surface area of mesh
 Return type
float

property
area_faces
¶ The area of each face in the mesh.
 Returns
area_faces – Area of each face
 Return type
(n,) float

property
body_count
¶ How many connected groups of vertices exist in this mesh.
Note that this number may differ from result in mesh.split, which is calculated from FACE rather than vertex adjacency.
 Returns
count – Number of connected vertex groups
 Return type
int

property
bounds
¶ The axis aligned bounds of the faces of the mesh.
 Returns
bounds – Bounding box with [min, max] coordinates
 Return type
(2, 3) float

property
center_mass
¶ The point in space which is the center of mass/volume.
If the current mesh is not watertight, this is meaningless garbage unless it was explicitly set.
 Returns
center_mass – Volumetric center of mass of the mesh
 Return type
(3,) float

property
centroid
¶ The point in space which is the average of the triangle centroids weighted by the area of each triangle.
This will be valid even for non watertight meshes, unlike self.center_mass
 Returns
centroid – The average vertex weighted by face area
 Return type
(3,) float

compute_stable_poses
(center_mass=None, sigma=0.0, n_samples=1, threshold=0.0)¶ Computes stable orientations of a mesh and their quasistatic probabilites.
This method samples the location of the center of mass from a multivariate gaussian (mean at com, cov equal to identity times sigma) over n_samples. For each sample, it computes the stable resting poses of the mesh on a a planar workspace and evaluates the probabilities of landing in each pose if the object is dropped onto the table randomly.
This method returns the 4x4 homogeneous transform matrices that place the shape against the planar surface with the zaxis pointing upwards and a list of the probabilities for each pose. The transforms and probabilties that are returned are sorted, with the most probable pose first.
 Parameters
center_mass ((3,) float) – The object center of mass (if None, this method assumes uniform density and watertightness and computes a center of mass explicitly)
sigma (float) – The covariance for the multivariate gaussian used to sample center of mass locations
n_samples (int) – The number of samples of the center of mass location
threshold (float) – The probability value at which to threshold returned stable poses
 Returns
transforms ((n, 4, 4) float) – The homogeneous matrices that transform the object to rest in a stable pose, with the new zaxis pointing upwards from the table and the object just touching the table.
probs ((n,) float) – A probability ranging from 0.0 to 1.0 for each pose

contains
(points)¶ Given a set of points, determine whether or not they are inside the mesh. This raises an error if called on a non watertight mesh.
 Parameters
points ((n, 3) float) – Points in cartesian space
 Returns
contains – Whether or not each point is inside the mesh
 Return type
(n, ) bool

convert_units
(desired, guess=False)¶ Convert the units of the mesh into a specified unit.
 Parameters
desired (string) – Units to convert to (eg ‘inches’)
guess (boolean) – If self.units are not defined should we guess the current units of the document and then convert?

convex_decomposition
(maxhulls=20, **kwargs)¶ Compute an approximate convex decomposition of a mesh.
testVHACD Parameters which can be passed as kwargs:
resolution 100000 max. concavity 0.001 plane downsampling 4 convexhull downsampling 4 alpha 0.05 beta 0.05 maxhulls 10 pca 0 mode 0 max. vertices per convexhull 64 min. volume to add vertices to convexhulls 0.0001 convexhull approximation 1 OpenCL acceleration 1 OpenCL platform ID 0 OpenCL device ID 0 output output.wrl log log.txt
 Parameters
maxhulls (int) – Maximum number of convex hulls to return
**kwargs (testVHACD keyword arguments) –
 Returns
meshes – List of convex meshes that approximate the original
 Return type
list of trimesh.Trimesh

property
convex_hull
¶ Get a new Trimesh object representing the convex hull of the current mesh.
 Returns
convex – Mesh of convex hull of current mesh
 Return type

copy
()¶ Safely get a copy of the current mesh.
Copied objects will have emptied caches to avoid memory issues and so may be slow on initial operations until caches are regenerated.
Current object will not have its cache cleared.
 Returns
copied – Copy of current mesh
 Return type

crc
()¶ A zlib.adler32 checksum for the current mesh data.
This is about 5x faster than an MD5, and the checksum is checked every time something is requested from the cache so it gets called a lot.
 Returns
crc – Checksum of current mesh data
 Return type
int

property
density
¶ The density of the mesh.
 Returns
density – The density of the mesh.
 Return type
float

difference
(other, engine=None)¶ Boolean difference between this mesh and n other meshes
 Parameters
other (trimesh.Trimesh, or list of trimesh.Trimesh objects) – Meshes to difference
 Returns
difference – Difference between self and other Trimesh objects
 Return type

property
edges
¶ Edges of the mesh (derived from faces).
 Returns
edges – List of vertex indices making up edges
 Return type
(n, 2) int

property
edges_face
¶ Which face does each edge belong to.
 Returns
edges_face – Index of self.faces
 Return type
(n,) int

property
edges_sorted
¶ Edges sorted along axis 1
 Returns
edges_sorted – Same as self.edges but sorted along axis 1
 Return type
(n, 2)

property
edges_sparse
¶ Edges in sparse bool COO graph format where connected vertices are True.
 Returns
sparse – Sparse graph in COO format
 Return type
(len(self.vertices), len(self.vertices)) bool

property
edges_unique
¶ The unique edges of the mesh.
 Returns
edges_unique – Vertex indices for unique edges
 Return type
(n, 2) int

property
edges_unique_inverse
¶ Return the inverse required to reproduce self.edges_sorted from self.edges_unique.
Useful for referencing edge properties: mesh.edges_unique[mesh.edges_unique_inverse] == m.edges_sorted
 Returns
inverse – Indexes of self.edges_unique
 Return type
(len(self.edges),) int

property
edges_unique_length
¶ How long is each unique edge.
 Returns
length – Length of each unique edge
 Return type
(len(self.edges_unique), ) float

property
euler_number
¶ Return the Euler characteristic (a topological invariant) for the mesh In order to guarantee correctness, this should be called after remove_unreferenced_vertices
 Returns
euler_number – Topological invariant
 Return type
int

eval_cached
(statement, *args)¶ Evaluate a statement and cache the result before returning.
Statements are evaluated inside the Trimesh object, and
 Parameters
statement (str) – Statement of valid python code
*args (list) – Available inside statement as args[0], etc
 Returns
result
 Return type
result of running eval on statement with args
Examples
r = mesh.eval_cached(‘np.dot(self.vertices, args[0])’, [0,0,1])

export
(file_obj=None, file_type=None, **kwargs)¶ Export the current mesh to a file object. If file_obj is a filename, file will be written there.
Supported formats are stl, off, ply, collada, json, dict, glb, dict64, msgpack.
 Parameters
file_obj (open writeable file object) – str, file name where to save the mesh None, if you would like this function to return the export blob
file_type (str) – Which file type to export as. If file name is passed this is not required

property
extents
¶ The length, width, and height of the bounding box of the mesh.
 Returns
extents – Array containing axis aligned [length, width, height]
 Return type
(3,) float

property
face_adjacency
¶ Find faces that share an edge, which we call here ‘adjacent’.
 Returns
adjacency – Pairs of faces which share an edge
 Return type
(n,2) int
Examples
In [1]: mesh = trimesh.load(‘models/featuretype.STL’)
In [2]: mesh.face_adjacency Out[2]: array([[ 0, 1],
[ 2, 3], [ 0, 3], …, [1112, 949], [3467, 3475], [1113, 3475]])
In [3]: mesh.faces[mesh.face_adjacency[0]] Out[3]: TrackedArray([[ 1, 0, 408],
[1239, 0, 1]], dtype=int64)
In [4]: import networkx as nx
In [5]: graph = nx.from_edgelist(mesh.face_adjacency)
In [6]: groups = nx.connected_components(graph)

property
face_adjacency_angles
¶ Return the angle between adjacent faces
 Returns
adjacency_angle – Angle between adjacent faces Each value corresponds with self.face_adjacency
 Return type
(n,) float

property
face_adjacency_convex
¶ Return faces which are adjacent and locally convex.
What this means is that given faces A and B, the one vertex in B that is not shared with A, projected onto the plane of A has a projection that is zero or negative.
 Returns
are_convex – Face pairs that are locally convex
 Return type
(len(self.face_adjacency),) bool

property
face_adjacency_edges
¶ Returns the edges that are shared by the adjacent faces.
 Returns
edges – Vertex indices which correspond to face_adjacency
 Return type
(n, 2) int

property
face_adjacency_projections
¶ The projection of the non shared vertex of a triangle onto its adjacent face
 Returns
projections – Dot product of vertex onto plane of adjacent triangle.
 Return type
(len(self.face_adjacency),) float

property
face_adjacency_radius
¶ The approximate radius of a cylinder that fits inside adjacent faces.
 Returns
radii – Approximate radius formed by triangle pair
 Return type
(len(self.face_adjacency),) float

property
face_adjacency_span
¶ The approximate perpendicular projection of the non shared vertices in a pair of adjacent faces onto the shared edge of the two faces.
 Returns
span – Approximate span between the non shared vertices
 Return type
(len(self.face_adjacency),) float

property
face_adjacency_tree
¶ An Rtree of face adjacencies.
 Returns
tree – Where each edge in self.face_adjacency has a rectangular cell
 Return type
rtree.index
Return the vertex index of the two vertices not in the shared edge between two adjacent faces
 Returns
vid_unshared – Indexes of mesh.vertices
 Return type
(len(mesh.face_adjacency), 2) int

property
face_angles
¶ Returns the angle at each vertex of a face.
 Returns
angles – Angle at each vertex of a face
 Return type
(n, 3) float

property
face_angles_sparse
¶ A sparse matrix representation of the face angles.
 Returns
sparse – dtype: float shape: (len(self.vertices), len(self.faces))
 Return type
scipy.sparse.coo_matrix with:

property
face_normals
¶ Return the unit normal vector for each face.
If a face is degenerate and a normal can’t be generated a zero magnitude unit vector will be returned for that face.
 Returns
normals – Normal vectors of each face
 Return type
(len(self.faces), 3) np.float64

property
faces
¶ The faces of the mesh.
This is regarded as core information which cannot be regenerated from cache, and as such is stored in self._data which tracks the array for changes and clears cached values of the mesh if this is altered.
 Returns
faces – Representing triangles which reference self.vertices
 Return type
(n,3) int

property
faces_sparse
¶ A sparse matrix representation of the faces.
 Returns
sparse – Has properties: dtype : bool shape : (len(self.vertices), len(self.faces))
 Return type
scipy.sparse.coo_matrix

property
faces_unique_edges
¶ For each face return which indexes in mesh.unique_edges constructs that face.
 Returns
faces_unique_edges – Indexes of self.edges_unique that construct self.faces
 Return type
(len(self.faces), 3) int
Examples
In [0]: mesh.faces[0:2] Out[0]: TrackedArray([[ 1, 6946, 24224],
[ 6946, 1727, 24225]])
In [1]: mesh.edges_unique[mesh.faces_unique_edges[0:2]] Out[1]: array([[[ 1, 6946],
[ 6946, 24224], [ 1, 24224]],
 [[ 1727, 6946],
[ 1727, 24225], [ 6946, 24225]]])

property
facets
¶ Return a list of face indices for coplanar adjacent faces.
 Returns
facets – Groups of indexes of self.faces
 Return type
(n, ) sequence of (m,) int

property
facets_area
¶ Return an array containing the area of each facet.
 Returns
area – Total area of each facet (group of faces)
 Return type
(len(self.facets),) float

property
facets_boundary
¶ Return the edges which represent the boundary of each facet
 Returns
edges_boundary – Indices of self.vertices
 Return type
sequence of (n, 2) int

property
facets_normal
¶ Return the normal of each facet
 Returns
normals – A unit normal vector for each facet
 Return type
(len(self.facets), 3) float

property
facets_on_hull
¶ Find which facets of the mesh are on the convex hull.
 Returns
on_hull – is A facet on the meshes convex hull or not
 Return type
(len(mesh.facets),) bool

property
facets_origin
¶ Return a point on the facet plane.
 Returns
origins – A point on each facet plane
 Return type
(len(self.facets), 3) float

fill_holes
()¶ Fill single triangle and single quad holes in the current mesh.
 Returns
watertight – Is the mesh watertight after the function completes
 Return type
bool

fix_normals
(**kwargs)¶ Find and fix problems with self.face_normals and self.faces winding direction.
For face normals ensure that vectors are consistently pointed outwards, and that self.faces is wound in the correct direction for all connected components.
 Parameters
multibody (None or bool) – Fix normals across multiple bodies if None automatically pick from body_count

property
identifier
¶ Return a float vector which is unique to the mesh and is robust to rotation and translation.
 Returns
identifier – Identifying properties of the current mesh
 Return type
(6,) float

property
identifier_md5
¶ An MD5 of the rotation invariant identifier vector
 Returns
hashed – MD5 hash of the identifier vector
 Return type
str

intersection
(other, engine=None)¶ Boolean intersection between this mesh and n other meshes
 Parameters
other (trimesh.Trimesh, or list of trimesh.Trimesh objects) – Meshes to calculate intersections with
 Returns
intersection – Mesh of the volume contained by all passed meshes
 Return type

invert
()¶ Invert the mesh in place by reversing the winding of every face and negating normals without dumping the cache.
self.faces : columns reversed self.face_normals : negated if defined self.vertex_normals : negated if defined

property
is_convex
¶ Check if a mesh is convex or not.
 Returns
is_convex – Is mesh convex or not
 Return type
bool

property
is_empty
¶ Does the current mesh have data defined.
 Returns
empty – If True, no data is set on the current mesh
 Return type
bool

property
is_volume
¶ Check if a mesh has all the properties required to represent a valid volume, rather than just a surface.
These properties include being watertight, having consistent winding and outward facing normals.
 Returns
valid – Does the mesh represent a volume
 Return type
bool

property
is_watertight
¶ Check if a mesh is watertight by making sure every edge is included in two faces.
 Returns
is_watertight – Is mesh watertight or not
 Return type
bool

property
is_winding_consistent
¶ Does the mesh have consistent winding or not. A mesh with consistent winding has each shared edge going in an opposite direction from the other in the pair.
 Returns
consistent – Is winding is consistent or not
 Return type
bool

property
kdtree
¶ Return a scipy.spatial.cKDTree of the vertices of the mesh. Not cached as this lead to observed memory issues and segfaults.
 Returns
tree – Contains mesh.vertices
 Return type
scipy.spatial.cKDTree

property
mass
¶ Mass of the current mesh, based on specified density and volume. If the current mesh isn’t watertight this is garbage.
 Returns
mass – Mass of the current mesh
 Return type
float

property
mass_properties
¶ Returns the mass properties of the current mesh.
Assumes uniform density, and result is probably garbage if mesh isn’t watertight.
 Returns
properties – With keys: ‘volume’ : in global units^3 ‘mass’ : From specified density ‘density’ : Included again for convenience (same as kwarg density) ‘inertia’ : Taken at the center of mass and aligned with global
coordinate system
’center_mass’ : Center of mass location, in global coordinate system
 Return type
dict

md5
()¶ An MD5 of the core geometry information for the mesh, faces and vertices.
Generated from TrackedArray which subclasses np.ndarray to monitor array for changes and returns a correct lazily evaluated md5 so it only has to recalculate the hash occasionally, rather than on every call.
 Returns
md5 – MD5 of everything in the DataStore
 Return type
string

merge_vertices
(digits=None, textured=True)¶ If a mesh has vertices that are closer than trimesh.constants.tol.merge reindex faces to reference the same index for both vertices.
 Parameters
digits (int) – If specified overrides tol.merge
textured (bool) – If True avoids merging vertices with different UV coordinates. No effect on untextured meshes.

property
moment_inertia
¶ Return the moment of inertia matrix of the current mesh. If mesh isn’t watertight this is garbage.
 Returns
inertia – Moment of inertia of the current mesh
 Return type
(3, 3) float

outline
(face_ids=None, **kwargs)¶ Given a list of face indexes find the outline of those faces and return it as a Path3D.
The outline is defined here as every edge which is only included by a single triangle.
Note that this implies a nonwatertight mesh as the outline of a watertight mesh is an empty path.
 Parameters
face_ids ((n,) int) – Indices to compute the outline of. If None, outline of full mesh will be computed.
**kwargs (passed to Path3D constructor) –
 Returns
path – Curve in 3D of the outline
 Return type

property
principal_inertia_components
¶ Return the principal components of inertia
Ordering corresponds to mesh.principal_inertia_vectors
 Returns
components – Principal components of inertia
 Return type
(3,) float

property
principal_inertia_transform
¶ A transform which moves the current mesh so the principal inertia vectors are on the X,Y, and Z axis, and the centroid is at the origin.
 Returns
transform – Homogeneous transformation matrix
 Return type
(4, 4) float

property
principal_inertia_vectors
¶ Return the principal axis of inertia.
Ordering corresponds to mesh.principal_inertia_components
 Returns
vectors – Three vectors pointing along the principal axis of inertia directions
 Return type
(3, 3) float

process
()¶ Do the bare minimum processing to make a mesh useful.
 Does this by:
removing NaN and Inf values
merging duplicate vertices
 If self._validate:
Remove triangles which have one edge of their rectangular 2D oriented bounding box shorter than tol.merge
remove duplicated triangles
 Returns
self – Current mesh
 Return type

property
referenced_vertices
¶ Which vertices in the current mesh are referenced by a face.
 Returns
referenced – Which vertices are referenced by a face
 Return type
(len(self.vertices),) bool

register
(other, **kwargs)¶ Align a mesh with another mesh or a PointCloud using the principal axes of inertia as a starting point which is refined by iterative closest point.
 Parameters
mesh (trimesh.Trimesh object) – Mesh to align with other
other (trimesh.Trimesh or (n, 3) float) – Mesh or points in space
samples (int) – Number of samples from mesh surface to align
icp_first (int) – How many ICP iterations for the 9 possible combinations of
icp_final (int) – How many ICP itertations for the closest candidate from the wider search
 Returns
mesh_to_other ((4, 4) float) – Transform to align mesh to the other object
cost (float) – Average square distance per point

remove_degenerate_faces
(height=1e08)¶ Remove degenerate faces (faces without 3 unique vertex indices) from the current mesh.
If a height is specified, it will remove any face with a 2D oriented bounding box with one edge shorter than that height.
If not specified, it will remove any face with a zero normal.
 Parameters
height (float) – If specified removes faces with an oriented bounding box shorter than this on one side.
 Returns
nondegenerate – Mask used to remove faces
 Return type
(len(self.faces),) bool

remove_duplicate_faces
()¶ On the current mesh remove any faces which are duplicates.
self.faces : removes duplicates

remove_infinite_values
()¶ Ensure that every vertex and face consists of finite numbers.
This will remove vertices or faces containing np.nan and np.inf
self.faces : masked to remove np.inf/np.nan self.vertices : masked to remove np.inf/np.nan

remove_unreferenced_vertices
()¶ Remove all vertices in the current mesh which are not referenced by a face.

rezero
()¶ Translate the mesh so that all vertex vertices are positive.
self.vertices : Translated to first octant (all values > 0)

sample
(count, return_index=False)¶ Return random samples distributed normally across the surface of the mesh
 Parameters
count (int) – Number of points to sample
return_index (bool) – If True will also return the index of which face each sample was taken from.
 Returns
samples ((count, 3) float) – Points on surface of mesh
face_index ((count, ) int) – Index of self.faces

property
scale
¶ A metric for the overall scale of the mesh, the length of the diagonal of the axis aligned bounding box of the mesh.
 Returns
scale – The length of the meshes AABB diagonal
 Return type
float

scene
(**kwargs)¶ Get a Scene object containing the current mesh.
 Returns
scene – Contains just the current mesh
 Return type

section
(plane_normal, plane_origin)¶ Returns a 3D cross section of the current mesh and a plane defined by origin and normal.
 Parameters
plane_normal – Normal vector of section plane
plane_origin ((3,) float) – Point on the cross section plane
 Returns
intersections – Curve of intersection
 Return type
Path3D or None

section_multiplane
(plane_origin, plane_normal, heights)¶ Return multiple parallel cross sections of the current mesh in 2D.
 Parameters
plane_normal – Normal vector of section plane
plane_origin ((3,) float) – Point on the cross section plane
heights ((n,) float) – Each section is offset by height along the plane normal.
 Returns
paths – 2D cross sections at specified heights. path.metadata[‘to_3D’] contains transform to return 2D section back into 3D space.
 Return type
(n,) Path2D or None

show
(**kwargs)¶ Render the mesh in an opengl window. Requires pyglet.
 Parameters
smooth (bool) – Run smooth shading on mesh or not, large meshes will be slow
 Returns
scene – Scene with current mesh in it
 Return type
trimesh.scene.Scene

slice_plane
(plane_origin, plane_normal, **kwargs)¶ Returns another mesh that is the current mesh sliced by the plane defined by origin and normal.
 Parameters
plane_normal – Normal vector of slicing plane
plane_origin ((3,) float) – Point on the slicing plane
 Returns
new_mesh – Subset of current mesh sliced by plane
 Return type
trimesh.Trimesh or None

smoothed
(**kwargs)¶ Return a version of the current mesh which will render nicely, without changing source mesh.
 Parameters
angle (float) – Angle in radians, face pairs with angles smaller than this value will appear smoothed
 Returns
smoothed – Non watertight version of current mesh which will render nicely with smooth shading
 Return type

split
(**kwargs)¶ Returns a list of Trimesh objects, based on face connectivity. Splits into individual components, sometimes referred to as ‘bodies’
 Parameters
only_watertight (bool) – Only return watertight meshes and discard remainder
adjacency (None or (n, 2) int) – Override face adjacency with custom values
 Returns
meshes – Separate bodies from original mesh
 Return type
(n,) trimesh.Trimesh

subdivide
(face_index=None)¶ Subdivide a mesh, with each subdivided face replaced with four smaller faces.
 Parameters
face_index ((m,) int or None) – If None all faces of mesh will be subdivided If (m,) int array of indices: only specified faces will be subdivided. Note that in this case the mesh will generally no longer be manifold, as the additional vertex on the midpoint will not be used by the adjacent faces to the faces specified, and an additional postprocessing step will be required to make resulting mesh watertight

submesh
(faces_sequence, **kwargs)¶ Return a subset of the mesh.
 Parameters
faces_sequence (sequence (m,) int) – Face indices of mesh
only_watertight (bool) – Only return submeshes which are watertight
append (bool) – Return a single mesh which has the faces appended. if this flag is set, only_watertight is ignored
 Returns
if append (trimesh.Trimesh object)
else (list of trimesh.Trimesh objects)

property
symmetry
¶ Check whether a mesh has rotational symmetry.
 Returns
symmetry – ‘radial’ Symmetric around an axis ‘spherical’ Symmetric around a point
 Return type
None No rotational symmetry

property
symmetry_axis
¶ If a mesh has rotational symmetry, return the axis.
 Returns
axis – Axis around which a 2D profile was revolved to generate this mesh
 Return type
(3,) float

property
symmetry_section
¶ If a mesh has rotational symmetry, return the two vectors which make up a section coordinate frame.
 Returns
section
 Return type
(2, 3) float, vectors to take a section along

to_dict
()¶ Return a dictionary representation of the current mesh, with keys that can be used as the kwargs for the Trimesh constructor, eg:
a = Trimesh(**other_mesh.to_dict())
 Returns
result – With keys that match trimesh constructor
 Return type
dict

property
triangles
¶ Actual triangles of the mesh (points, not indexes)
 Returns
triangles – Points of triangle vertices
 Return type
(n, 3, 3) float

property
triangles_center
¶ The center of each triangle (barycentric [1/3, 1/3, 1/3])
 Returns
triangles_center – Center of each triangular face
 Return type
(len(self.faces), 3) float

property
triangles_cross
¶ The cross product of two edges of each triangle.
 Returns
crosses – Cross product of each triangle
 Return type
(n, 3) float

property
triangles_tree
¶ An Rtree containing each face of the mesh.
 Returns
tree – Each triangle in self.faces has a rectangular cell
 Return type
rtree.index

union
(other, engine=None)¶ Boolean union between this mesh and n other meshes
 Parameters
other (trimesh.Trimesh, or list of trimesh.Trimesh objects) – Other meshes to union
 Returns
union – Union of self and other Trimesh objects
 Return type

property
units
¶ Definition of units for the mesh.
 Returns
units – Unit system mesh is in, or None if not defined
 Return type
str

unmerge_vertices
()¶ Removes all face references so that every face contains three unique vertex indices and no faces are adjacent.

update_faces
(mask)¶ In many cases, we will want to remove specific faces. However, there is additional bookkeeping to do this cleanly. This function updates the set of faces with a validity mask, as well as keeping track of normals and colors.
 Parameters
valid – Mask to remove faces

update_vertices
(mask, inverse=None)¶ Update vertices with a mask.
 Parameters
vertex_mask ((len(self.vertices)) bool) – Array of which vertices to keep
inverse ((len(self.vertices)) int) – Array to reconstruct vertex references such as output by np.unique

property
vertex_adjacency_graph
¶ Returns a networkx graph representing the vertices and their connections in the mesh.
 Returns
graph – Graph representing vertices and edges between them where vertices are nodes and edges are edges
 Return type
networkx.Graph
Examples
This is useful for getting nearby vertices for a given vertex, potentially for some simple smoothing techniques.
mesh = trimesh.primitives.Box() graph = mesh.vertex_adjacency_graph graph.neighbors(0) > [1,2,3,4]

property
vertex_defects
¶ Return the vertex defects, or (2*pi) minus the sum of the angles of every face that includes that vertex.
If a vertex is only included by coplanar triangles, this will be zero. For convex regions this is positive, and concave negative.
 Returns
vertex_defect – Vertex defect at the every vertex
 Return type
(len(self.vertices), ) float

property
vertex_faces
¶ A representation of the face indices that correspond to each vertex.
 Returns
vertex_faces – Each row contains the face indices that correspond to the given vertex, padded with 1 up to the max number of faces corresponding to any one vertex Where n == len(self.vertices), m == max number of faces for a single vertex
 Return type
(n,m) int

property
vertex_neighbors
¶ The vertex neighbors of each vertex of the mesh, determined from the cached vertex_adjacency_graph, if already existent.
 Returns
vertex_neighbors – Represents immediate neighbors of each vertex along the edge of a triangle
 Return type
(len(self.vertices),) int
Examples
This is useful for getting nearby vertices for a given vertex, potentially for some simple smoothing techniques.
>>> mesh = trimesh.primitives.Box() >>> mesh.vertex_neighbors[0] [1,2,3,4]

property
vertex_normals
¶ The vertex normals of the mesh. If the normals were loaded we check to make sure we have the same number of vertex normals and vertices before returning them. If there are no vertex normals defined or a shape mismatch we calculate the vertex normals from the mean normals of the faces the vertex is used in.
 Returns
vertex_normals – Represents the surface normal at each vertex. Where n == len(self.vertices)
 Return type
(n,3) float

property
vertices
¶ The vertices of the mesh.
This is regarded as core information which cannot be generated from cache and as such is stored in self._data which tracks the array for changes and clears cached values of the mesh if this is altered.
 Returns
vertices – Points in cartesian space referenced by self.faces
 Return type
(n, 3) float

property
visual
¶ Get the stored visuals for the current mesh.
 Returns
visual – Contains visual information about the mesh
 Return type

property
volume
¶ Volume of the current mesh calculated using a surface integral. If the current mesh isn’t watertight this is garbage.
 Returns
volume – Volume of the current mesh
 Return type
float

voxelized
(pitch, method='subdivide', **kwargs)¶ Return a VoxelGrid object representing the current mesh discretized into voxels at the specified pitch
 Parameters
pitch (float) – The edge length of a single voxel
method (implementation key. See trimesh.voxel.creation.voxelizers) –
**kwargs (additional kwargs passed to the specified implementation.) –
 Returns
voxelized – Representing the current mesh
 Return type
VoxelGrid object


class
trimesh.
PointCloud
(vertices, colors=None, color=None)¶ Bases:
trimesh.parent.Geometry
Hold 3D points in an object which can be visualized in a scene.

apply_transform
(transform)¶ Apply a homogeneous transformation to the PointCloud object in place.
 Parameters
transform ((4, 4) float) – Homogeneous transformation to apply to PointCloud

property
bounds
¶ The axis aligned bounds of the PointCloud
 Returns
bounds – Miniumum, Maximum verteex
 Return type
(2, 3) float

property
centroid
¶ The mean vertex position
 Returns
centroid – Mean vertex position
 Return type
(3,) float

property
colors
¶ Stored per point color
 Returns
colors – Per point RGBA color
 Return type
(len(self.vertices), 4) np.uint8

property
convex_hull
¶ A convex hull of every point.
 Returns
convex_hull – A watertight mesh of the hull of the points
 Return type

copy
()¶ Safely get a copy of the current point cloud.
Copied objects will have emptied caches to avoid memory issues and so may be slow on initial operations until caches are regenerated.
Current object will not have its cache cleared.
 Returns
copied – Copy of current point cloud
 Return type

property
extents
¶ The size of the axis aligned bounds
 Returns
extents – Edge length of axis aligned bounding box
 Return type
(3,) float

property
is_empty
¶ Are there any vertices defined or not.
 Returns
empty – True if no vertices defined
 Return type
bool

md5
()¶ Get an MD5 hash of the current vertices.
 Returns
md5 – Hash of self.vertices
 Return type
str

merge_vertices
()¶ Merge vertices closer than tol.merge (default: 1e8)

scene
()¶ A scene containing just the PointCloud
 Returns
scene – Scene object containing this PointCloud
 Return type

property
shape
¶ Get the shape of the pointcloud
 Returns
shape – Shape of vertex array
 Return type
(2,) int

show
(**kwargs)¶ Open a viewer window displaying the current PointCloud

property
vertices
¶ Vertices of the PointCloud
 Returns
vertices – Points in the PointCloud
 Return type
(n, 3) float


class
trimesh.
Scene
(geometry=None, base_frame='world', metadata={}, graph=None, camera=None, lights=None, camera_transform=None)¶ Bases:
trimesh.parent.Geometry
A simple scene graph which can be rendered directly via pyglet/openGL or through other endpoints such as a raytracer. Meshes are added by name, which can then be moved by updating transform in the transform tree.

add_geometry
(geometry, node_name=None, geom_name=None, parent_node_name=None, transform=None)¶ Add a geometry to the scene.
If the mesh has multiple transforms defined in its metadata, they will all be copied into the TransformForest of the current scene automatically.
 Parameters
geometry (Trimesh, Path2D, Path3D PointCloud or list) – Geometry to initially add to the scene
base_frame (str or hashable) – Name of base frame
metadata (dict) – Any metadata about the scene
graph (TransformForest or None) – A passed transform graph to use
 Returns
node_name – Name of node in self.graph
 Return type
str

apply_transform
(transform)¶

property
bounds
¶ Return the overall bounding box of the scene.
 Returns
bounds
 Return type
(2,3) float points for min, max corner

property
bounds_corners
¶ A list of points that represent the corners of the AABB of every geometry in the scene.
This can be useful if you want to take the AABB in a specific frame.
 Returns
corners
 Return type
(n, 3) float, points in space

property
camera
¶ Get the single camera for the scene. If not manually set one will abe automatically generated.
 Returns
camera – Camera object defined for the scene
 Return type
trimesh.scene.Camera

camera_rays
()¶ Calculate the trimesh.scene.Camera origin and ray direction vectors.
Will return one ray per pixel, as set in camera.resolution.
 Returns
origins ((3,) float) – Ray origins in space
vectors ((n, 3)) – Ray direction unit vectors in world coordinates

property
camera_transform
¶ Get camera transform in the base frame
 Returns
camera_transform – Camera transform in the base frame
 Return type
(4, 4), float

property
centroid
¶ Return the center of the bounding box for the scene.
 Returns
centroid
 Return type
float point for center of bounding box

convert_units
(desired, guess=False)¶ If geometry has units defined convert them to new units.
Returns a new scene with geometries and transforms scaled.
 Parameters
desired (str) – Desired final unit system: ‘inches’, ‘mm’, etc.
guess (bool) – Is the converter allowed to guess scale when models don’t have it specified in their metadata.
 Returns
scaled – Copy of scene with scaling applied and units set for every model
 Return type

property
convex_hull
¶ The convex hull of the whole scene
 Returns
hull
 Return type
Trimesh object, convex hull of all meshes in scene

copy
()¶ Return a deep copy of the current scene
 Returns
copied – Copy of the current scene
 Return type

dump
()¶ Append all meshes in scene to a list of meshes.
 Returns
dumped – location the scene.graph
 Return type
(n,) list, of Trimesh objects transformed to their

property
duplicate_nodes
¶ Return a sequence of node keys of identical meshes.
Will combine meshes duplicated by copying in space with different keys in self.geometry, as well as meshes repeated by self.nodes.
 Returns
duplicates – identical geometry
 Return type
sequence of keys to self.nodes that represent

explode
(vector=None, origin=None)¶ Explode a scene around a point and vector.
 Parameters
vector ((3,) float or float) – Explode radially around a direction vector or spherically
origin ((3,) float) – Point to explode around

export
(file_type=None)¶ Export a snapshot of the current scene.
 Parameters
file_type (what encoding to use for meshes) – ie: dict, dict64, stl
 Returns
export – meshes: list of meshes, encoded as per file_type transforms: edge list of transforms, eg:
((u, v, {‘matrix’ : np.eye(4)}))
 Return type
dict with keys:

property
extents
¶ Return the axis aligned box size of the current scene.
 Returns
extents
 Return type
(3,) float, bounding box sides length

property
geometry_identifiers
¶ Look up geometries by identifier MD5
 Returns
identifiers
 Return type
dict, identifier md5: key in self.geometry

property
is_empty
¶ Does the scene have anything in it.
 Returns
is_empty
 Return type
bool, True if nothing is in the scene

property
is_valid
¶ Is every geometry connected to the root node.
 Returns
is_valid – Does every geometry have a transform
 Return type
bool

property
lights
¶ Get a list of the lights in the scene. If nothing is set it will generate some automatically.
 Returns
lights – Lights in the scene.
 Return type

md5
()¶ MD5 of scene which will change when meshes or transforms are changed
 Returns
hashed
 Return type
str, MD5 hash of scene

rezero
()¶ Move the current scene so that the AABB of the whole scene is centered at the origin.
Does this by changing the base frame to a new, offset base frame.

save_image
(resolution=(1024, 768), **kwargs)¶ Get a PNG image of a scene.
 Parameters
resolution ((2,) int, resolution to render image) –
**kwargs (passed to SceneViewer constructor) –
 Returns
png
 Return type
bytes, render of scene in PNG form

property
scale
¶ The approximate scale of the mesh
 Returns
scale
 Return type
float, the mean of the bounding box edge lengths

scaled
(scale)¶ Return a copy of the current scene, with meshes and scene transforms scaled to the requested factor.
 Parameters
scale (float) – Factor to scale meshes and transforms
 Returns
scaled – A copy of the current scene but scaled
 Return type

set_camera
(angles=None, distance=None, center=None, resolution=None, fov=None)¶ Create a camera object for self.camera, and add a transform to self.graph for it.
If arguments are not passed sane defaults will be figured out which show the mesh roughly centered.
 Parameters
angles ((3,) float) – Initial euler angles in radians
distance (float) – Distance from centroid
center ((3,) float) – Point camera should be center on
camera (Camera object) – Object that stores camera parameters

show
(viewer=None, **kwargs)¶ Display the current scene.
 Parameters
viewer (str) – What kind of viewer to open, including ‘gl’ to open a pyglet window, ‘notebook’ for a jupyter notebook or None
kwargs (dict) – Includes smooth, which will turn on or off automatic smooth shading

property
triangles
¶ Return a correctly transformed polygon soup of the current scene.
 Returns
triangles
 Return type
(n,3,3) float, triangles in space

property
triangles_node
¶ Which node of self.graph does each triangle come from.
 Returns
triangles_index – Node name for each triangle
 Return type
(len(self.triangles),)

property
units
¶ Get the units for every model in the scene, and raise a ValueError if there are mixed units.
 Returns
units – Units for every model in the scene
 Return type
str


trimesh.
unitize
(vectors, check_valid=False, threshold=None)¶ Unitize a vector or an array or row vectors.
 Parameters
vectors ((n,m) or (j) float) – Vector or vectors to be unitized
check_valid (bool) – If set, will return mask of nonzero vectors
threshold (float) – Cutoff for a value to be considered zero.
 Returns
unit ((n,m) or (j) float) – Input vectors but unitized
valid ((n,) bool or bool) – Mask of nonzero vectors returned if check_valid

trimesh.
load
(file_obj, file_type=None, resolver=None, **kwargs)¶ Load a mesh or vectorized path into objects like Trimesh, Path2D, Path3D, Scene
 Parameters
file_obj (str, or file like object) – The source of the data to be loadeded
file_type (str) – What kind of file type do we have (eg: ‘stl’)
resolver (trimesh.visual.Resolver) – Object to load referenced assets like materials and textures
kwargs (dict) – Passed to geometry __init__
 Returns
geometry – Loaded geometry as trimesh classes
 Return type

trimesh.
load_mesh
(*args, **kwargs)¶ Load a mesh file into a Trimesh object
 Parameters
file_obj (str or file object) – File name or file with mesh data
file_type (str or None) – Which file type, e.g. ‘stl’
kwargs (dict) – Passed to Trimesh constructor
 Returns
mesh – Loaded geometry data
 Return type

trimesh.
load_path
(obj, file_type=None, **kwargs)¶ Load a file to a Path object.
 Parameters
obj (One of the following:) –
Path, Path2D, or Path3D objects
open file object (dxf or svg)
file name (dxf or svg)
shapely.geometry.Polygon
shapely.geometry.MultiLineString
dict with kwargs for Path constructor
(n,2,(23)) float, line segments
file_type (str) – Type of file is required if file object passed.
 Returns
path – Data as a native trimesh Path object
 Return type

trimesh.
load_remote
(url, **kwargs)¶ Load a mesh at a remote URL into a local trimesh object.
This must be called explicitly rather than automatically from trimesh.load to ensure users don’t accidentally make network requests.
 Parameters
url (string) – URL containing mesh file
**kwargs (passed to load) –

trimesh.
transform_points
(points, matrix, translate=True)¶ Returns points, rotated by transformation matrix
If points is (n,2), matrix must be (3,3) if points is (n,3), matrix must be (4,4)
 Parameters
points ((n, d) float) – Points where d is 2 or 3
matrix ((3,3) or (4,4) float) – Homogeneous rotation matrix
translate (bool) – Apply translation from matrix or not
 Returns
transformed – Transformed points
 Return type
(n,d) float

trimesh.
available_formats
()¶ Get a list of all available loaders
 Returns
loaders – Extensions of available loaders i.e. ‘stl’, ‘ply’, ‘dxf’, etc.
 Return type
list